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Particulars of Christianity:
313 Preterism


A Throne of His Own

Preterism Part 1: The Basics and Partial Preterism
Preterism Part 2: Olivet and the Transcendent "You"
Preterism Part 3: The Remaining "Proof Texts"
Preterism Part 4: Appealing to Josephus
Preterism Part 5: Uninterrupted Futurism into 2nd Century
Preterism Part 6: Nero, History, and Biblical Details
Preterism Part 7: Scripture and a Delayed Coming
Preterism Part 8: Brief Summary of Conclusions
Behold I Come Quickly
Things Which Must Shortly Come to Pass
When Was Revelation Written?
A Throne of His Own

Addendum: "The Time Is At Hand"




The purpose of this article will be to examine the claims made by Preterists and others that Jesus began ruling on his throne (the throne of David) at the cross and is presently ruling on that throne in heaven. We will refute these claims with three arguments built from the scripture itself. First, we will establish that Jesus did not sit on his throne at the cross. Second, we will show that there was a period of time, which extended from the cross to at least the time of the writing of the New Testament books of Hebrews and Revelation during which Jesus was not sitting on his throne. Third, we will show that Jesus has not sat on his throne at any time from the cross until now.

Before we get into the arguments themselves let us take a few moments to consider what the Bible means when referring to Jesus' throne.

From the very beginning of the Gospel story we are informed that Jesus' throne is the throne of his Father David.

Luke 1:32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David

The phrase "the throne of David" is a technical term used throughout the Old Testament to refer to the descendants of David who ruled over Israel as the Davidic Dynasty. The following verses all establish this fact: 2 Samuel 3:10, 1 Kings 2:12, 24, 45, 1 Kings 8:20, 25, 1 Kings 9:5, 1 Chronicles 29:23, 2 Chronicles 6:10, 16, 2 Chronicles 7:18, Psalm 132:11, Isaiah 9:7, Isaiah 16:5, Jeremiah 17:25, Jeremiah 22:2, 4, 30, Jeremiah 29:16, Jeremiah 33:17.

These descendants of David who sat on the throne of David all ruled over a literal earthly kingdom of Israel from earth. This term is used throughout the Old Testament to refer to a descendant of King David ruling over the earthly kingdom of Israel as king. None of the previous descendants of David ruled the kingdom from heaven or in a purely spiritual sense. Therefore, we have to reject the idea that when applied to Jesus, the Messiah, the concept takes on a uniquely unearthly, and spiritual meaning unless we can find that the New Testament deviates from and discards the Old Testament description. However since an Old Testament is all that was available at the time Gabriel made his announcement to Mary, we must understand that Luke 1:32 indicates that Jesus would rule the earthly kingdom of Israel as king just as did the other Jewish kings who sat upon the throne of David.

In a Messianic sense, the idea that the son of David, the Messiah, would sit on David's throne is very strongly tied with the earthly Jewish kingdom as the head of nations, during the Messianic reign. This fact is also well established in Old Testament precedent.

Isaiah 9:6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. 7 Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

Daniel 2:34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. 35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth...44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. 45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.

Daniel 7:13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14 And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed...22 Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom...26 But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. 27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.

In these passages from Isaiah and Daniel we see that the Messianic kingdom is a well-established Old Testament prophetic fact. And the Messianic kingdom (referred to in Daniel as the kingdom of the God of heaven) was, in fact, an earthly, kingdom, which would ultimately replace the Gentile kingdoms that had previously ruled over the earth.

Additionally, we must recognize the distinctly Jewish nature of the Messianic kingdom as it is portrayed in each of these passages. Daniel's depiction of the kingdom of the God of heaven and its rule by the Messiah, the son of Man, would have been a distinctly Jewish one since Daniel was a Jew, and at the time God's people were almost exclusively Jewish. It was not until the New Testament that we see Gentiles being incorporated in large numbers. This is consistent wit h Isaiah 9, which connects the rule of the Messiah to the throne of David, a distinctly Jewish Dynasty of kings.

We see this idea of a Jewish ruler receiving dominion as Daniel spoke about as early as the book of Numbers.

Numbers 24:15 And he took up his parable, and said, Balaam the son of Beor hath said, and the man whose eyes are open hath said: 16 He hath said, which heard the words of God, and knew the knowledge of the most High, which saw the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, but having his eyes open: 17 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth. 18 And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a possession for his enemies; and Israel shall do valiantly. 19 Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion, and shall destroy him that remaineth of the city.

The New Testament continues this Old Testament expectation and does not deviate from it.

Acts 1:6 When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel? 7 And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power.

Notice from the passage out of Acts 1 that after the cross, after Jesus' resurrection, after spending three and a half years under Jesus' teaching, the disciples still expected that Jesus, as the Jewish Messiah, would restore the Jewish kingdom, the kingdom of Israel. They understood the kingdom of God (the kingdom of heaven) that Jesus was preaching, to be a Jewish earthly kingdom.

We can understand why the disciples expected an earthly Jewish kingdom when we consider the following passages, which record Jesus teaching on the matter.

Matthew 6:10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.

Luke 11:2 And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth.

Here in the Lord's prayer we see Jesus' instructed his disciples to pray regarding the kingdom of God. When praying about the kingdom of God, we are to ask that God's will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Thus, we see that Jesus was confirming the Old Testament expectation that the kingdom of God is an earthly kingdom. Additionally, we must notice the idea of absolutism that is conveyed concerning the kingdom of God on earth. Jesus' rule over the kingdom of God on earth would be as strictly enforced as God's will currently is in heaven. We will cover more on this issue later in our study.

Matthew 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Luke 22:30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

From these words of Jesus to his disciples at the Last Supper we see why the disciples understood and expected that Jesus' kingdom would be a Jewish kingdom since he clearly states that they would rule with him over the twelve tribes of Israel. These comments express a distinctly Jewish characteristic to Jesus' sitting on his throne in the kingdom of God. When we take all of these verses together we can see that Jesus' teaching and the New Testament did not deviate from, but instead upheld, the Old Testament depiction that the kingdom of the God of heaven would be Jewish and earthly, with Jesus ruling from earth in the same manner as the previous kings of Israel who sat on David's throne.

One last distinction we must make about Jesus' throne is that it is not the same as the throne of God the Father. The throne of God the Father is shown in the scripture to be distinctly different than Jesus' throne. We can establish this conclusively using the two following New Testament verses.

Revelation 3:21 To him who overcomes, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I overcame and sat down with my Father on his throne.

Revelation 12:5 She gave birth to a son, a male child, who will rule all the nations with an iron scepter. And her child was snatched up to God and to his throne.

These two verses from Revelation inform us that Jesus' throne and God the Father's throne are two different things. This is an important distinction that must be made since there are many cases in the New Testament, which inform us clearly that Jesus is seated at the right hand of God, on God the Father's throne in heaven. Since the two thrones are distinguished by Jesus in the Book of Revelation, we must not therefore, confuse the two and conclude that Jesus' sitting at the right hand of the Father's throne in heaven is the same as his sitting on his own throne.

Examples of the New Testament confirming that Jesus is currently seated at the right hand of the Father's throne are Revelation 12:5 (above), Psalms 110:1-6, Acts 2:34-36, Acts 7:55-56, and Hebrews 1:3.

Psalm 110:1 The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet." 2 The LORD will extend your mighty scepter from Zion; you will rule in the midst of your enemies. 3 Your troops will be willing on your day of battle. Arrayed in holy majesty, from the womb of the dawn you will receive the dew of your youth. 4 The LORD has sworn and will not change his mind: "You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek." 5 The Lord is at your right hand; he will crush kings on the day of his wrath. 6 He will judge the nations, heaping up the dead and crushing the rulers of the whole earth. 7 He will drink from a brook beside the way; therefore he will lift up his head.

(Notice from Psalm 110 the apocalyptic nature of the description of the Messiah coming to rule. This passage further confirms the distinctly Jewish nature of the Messianic kingdom.)

Acts 2:34 For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said, "The Lord said to my Lord: 'Sit at my right hand 35 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.'" 36 Therefore let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.

Acts 7:55 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. 56 "Look," he said, "I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God."

Hebrews 1:3 Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

Acts 2:34-36, Acts 7:55-56, and Hebrews 1:3 all confirm that Psalm 110 is speaking of Jesus. And so we can see that both the Old and New Testaments portray that there would be a time when Jesus would sit at the right hand of the Father's throne in heaven as he awaited his enemies to be made his footstool, to be made subject to him.

One final reason that we must distinguish between the two thrones is that Jesus' sitting at the right hand of the Father is portrayed as having occurred in the past after his resurrection and ascension, while his sitting on his own throne, according to Revelation, written in the mid 90's AD, had not yet occurred. We will cover the significance of this more momentarily.

Before we move on let's pause and sum up what we've discovered so far.

1. Jesus' throne is the throne of David.
2. The throne of David is an earthly throne over an earthly, Jewish kingdom.
3. Jesus the Messiah would rule the coming kingdom of God.
4. The Old and New Testaments both teach that Jesus' throne is the throne of David, which he will sit on as he rules the kingdom of God (the kingdom of heaven) .
5. Jesus' kingdom, the kingdom of God, is depicted as an earthly kingdom and a Jewish kingdom.
6. Jesus' throne is to be distinguished from the throne of God the Father.

Now that we have examined the Biblical depiction of what Jesus' throne is we can delve further into this concept to determine whether or not Jesus is currently seated on his throne over the kingdom of God. The first way we said we would refute the Preterist claim would be to show that Jesus DID NOT sit on his throne at the cross. This can be done quite simply.

John 18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

Here in John 18 we see Jesus, the day of his crucifixion, inform Pilate that his kingdom was not "now" from hence. This verse further confirms our claim that the Bible portrays Jesus kingdom as being an earthly kingdom. In saying that his kingdom is not "now" of this world Jesus is declaring that some day it would be of this world. And secondly, with regard to whether he sat on his throne at the cross this statement by Jesus informs us that his kingdom would not be of this world "now." Specifically speaking, since he was crucified that same day, we cannot then conclude that Jesus' kingdom began at the cross or that Jesus sat on the throne of his kingdom at the cross. Jesus' statement to Pilate here, rules out either of these conclusions.

At this point we might also quote a passage from Luke 19 in which we see that Jesus was again being careful to inform his disciples that his kingdom and his rule would not be soon in coming.

Luke 19:11 And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear. 12 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return.

These statement given in the preface of this parable confirms that Jesus kingdom would not begin immediately. Put another way, consistent with Jesus' words to Pilate, we see that Jesus' kingdom would not begin at the cross as Preterists contend.

So we have completed our first task, which was to show that Jesus did not sit on his throne at the cross as Preterists contend. Therefore, we will move on to our second task, which is to show that Jesus did not sit on his throne at any time between the cross and the writing of Hebrews and Revelation.

Hebrews 10:12 But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God. 13 Since that time he waits for his enemies to be made his footstool.

This passage from Hebrews confirms what we already saw earlier beginning with Psalms 110 and confirmed elsewhere in the New Testament. Hebrews 10:12-13 clearly tells us that there is a time after Jesus' sits at the right hand of God that he is NOT ruling, but is instead waiting to rule, waiting for his enemies to be made his footstool. Another passage from earlier in Hebrews confirms this fact more explicitly.

Hebrews 2:6 But there is a place where someone has testified: "What is man that you are mindful of him, the son of man that you care for him? 7 You made him a little lower than the angels; you crowned him with glory and honor 8 and put everything under his feet." In putting everything under him, God left nothing that is not subject to him. Yet at present we do not see everything subject to him. 9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.

When we take these two passages from Hebrews into account with the other passages we have already looked at we must understand that there was a time that extended between Jesus' ascension when he sat at the right hand of God in heaven and the writing of Hebrews when Jesus did not sit on his throne, and was not ruling. This then completely refutes the Preterist claim that Jesus began ruling on his throne at the cross. Smith's Bible Dictionary states that the epistle to the Hebrews "was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, probably about AD 62-64." This means that there was a period of around 30 years, between approximately 33 AD and 62-64 AD, in which Jesus' was not ruling, not sitting on his throne. But we can extend this period even farther.

Revelation 12:10 And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.

The Book of Revelation was written in the mid 90's AD. Here in chapter 12 we see that the kingdom of God and the power of Christ are portrayed as having not occurred in the past, but coming to pass. This means that Jesus' did not sit on his throne to rule the kingdom of God until approximately 60 years after the cross.

From these first two arguments we have shown how the Preterist claim that Jesus had to have sat down on his throne at the cross and that he had to be ruling his kingdom at the cross are utterly false from a Biblical perspective. Now we will examine the scripture to see if we can determine whether or not Jesus is currently seated on his throne ruling over the earth. Put another way, we will seek to determine if Jesus' sat on his throne and began to rule at any time since the books of Hebrews or Revelation were written. We can do this by examining the Biblical description of Jesus' sitting on his throne and coming to rule his kingdom and then seeing if these descriptions have occurred yet.

Jesus sitting on his throne is described as coinciding with several events.

1. The resurrection of the dead, and the gathering together of the living who are righteous.
2. Jesus not being in heaven, but being present on earth.
3. Jesus' enemies being made his footstool, being made subject to him as understood by his rule over the earth being strictly enforced as described by his ruling with an iron scepter.

We will begin by demonstrating that the scriptural portrayal of Jesus' sitting on his throne to rule the kingdom of heaven will be accompanied by a resurrection of the righteous dead and a gathering together of the righteous living.

Matthew 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Matthew 24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

Matthew 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:

Mark 13:27 And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.

From Jesus' words here we can see that when speaking of the arrival of his kingdom Jesus clearly informs us that it will coincide with a gathering together of the righteous, who are in heaven and on earth, that is who are dead (in heaven), and who are alive (on earth).

1 Thessalonians 4:13 But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope. 14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. 16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. 18 Wherefore comfort one another with these words.

2 Thessalonians 2:1 Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto him, 2 That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. 3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;

These passages from Paul's letters to the Thessalonian church confirm that Jesus' coming to rule on the throne of David over the kingdom of God will be accompanied by a resurrection of the righteous dead and a gathering together of the righteous who are still alive.

Furthermore, we can see that 2 Thessalonians 2 states that before Jesus' comes to rule his kingdom the Antichrist, the man of sin, comes first. (For more on how 2 Thessalonians 2 and the coming of the Antichrist before Jesus' would come in his kingdom contradict Preterism please see our article entitled "Preterism 6: Nero, History, and the Biblical Details")

All of the above verses testify to the fact that Jesus' sitting on his throne and ruling the kingdom of God will be accompanied by a resurrection of the righteous dead and a gathering together of the righteous who are still alive. History bears out that there has been no resurrection of the righteous or gathering together of the elect at any time since the writing of Hebrews in the earlier 60's AD and Revelation in the mid 90's AD. Therefore, since Jesus' ruling must coincide with these events, and since they have not happened, we must conclude that likewise Jesus has not yet sat on his throne and is not yet ruling the kingdom of God.

However, we can demonstrate that this is the case further by examining our second criterion that when he sits on his throne to rule the kingdom of God Jesus will not be in heaven, but will be present on earth.

Earlier we saw from Acts 1:6 that after his resurrection while he was still present on earth his disciples expected that he would restore the kingdom to Israel. Jesus' response to this question was not that there would be no such kingdom, but only that it wasn't for the disciples to know when such things would occur. Afterwards Jesus ascended into heaven and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God the Father in heaven where he awaits to sit on his own throne and rule the restored Messianic kingdom of Israel that the disciples had asked him about in Acts 1:6. Hebrews 1:3 and Revelation 12:5 confirm that after his atoning work Jesus ascended up to God and His throne.

However, in Acts 3, in his second sermon, Peter while instructing the crowd makes the following statement regarding Jesus' stay in heaven.

Acts 3:21 Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution (605) of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.

Here in verse 21 we see that Peter is teaching that Jesus' will remain in heaven until the restitution of all things, which he states has been spoken of all the holy prophets since the world began. So what is this restitution of all things that the holy prophets have spoke of since the beginning of the world?

In the Greek the word restitution is Strong's # 605. It occurs only one time in the New Testament Greek, here in Acts 3:21.

605 apokatastasis ap-ok-at-as'-tas-is
from 600; TDNT-1:389,65; n f
AV-restitution 1; 1
1) restoration
1a) of a true theocracy
1b) of the perfect state before the fall

From the definition we can see that it comes from another Greek word Strong's number 600.

600 apokathistemi ap-ok-ath-is'-tay-mee
from 575 and 2525; TDNT-1:387,65; v
AV-restore 7, restore again 1; 8
1) to restore to its former state
2) to be in its former state

This root word, Strong's number 600, occurs seven times in the New Testament. Here are two of its relevant occurrences.

Matthew 17:11 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore (600) all things.

Mark 9:12 And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth (600) all things;

In both of these cases we see a similar phrase occur as Peter employs in his sermon in Acts 3:21. The idea of the restoration of all things. Clearly, the same idea is being expressed in Acts 3:21 as here in Matthew 17:11 and Mark 9:12. The reason we must conclude this is because Peter is speaking to a crowd of Jews who would have been familiar with Old Testament teaching regarding the Messiah and the coming kingdom of God. Peter is therefore not introducing some new concept that his audience would not have understood, but instead is instructing them on a concept they would already have known. And as we see from these two verses from the Gospels that concept involved a restoration of all things before the coming of the Messiah. Now, the understanding of two advents of the Messiah was contained enigmatically in the Old Testament, but was not understood before Jesus came. So while many understood the Messiah as a conquering political king they did not understand that he would first come to suffer and offer himself as an atoning sacrifice for our sin. The restoration would come before the Messiah came as a king, but not before he came as an atoning sacrifice for our sin.

Therefore, when Peter speaks of the restitution of all things in Acts 3:21 he is building on the Jewish understanding at the time and explaining that the Messiah, Jesus, first came and offered himself as an atoning sacrifice and will remain in heaven until the times of restitution of all things and then return to conquer and rule as they had always understood. We know that Peter was familiar with the restitution of all things that would occur before the coming earthly, Jewish kingdom of God because that is exactly what he and the other disciples asked Jesus about in Acts 1:6. In fact, it is this same concept and even this same Greek word that is used in Acts 1:6 when the disciples ask Jesus about the kingdom of Israel, which he was to rule, sitting on David's throne.

Acts 1:6 When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore (600) again the kingdom to Israel?

What these four New Testament passages tell us is that the restoration is a prophetic reference to the times of the Messianic kingdom, in which the creation will be recovered from the curse it was subjected to under the sin of man and in which Israel will rule the nations. Paul confirms that this is the case and that this was understood at the time in Romans 8:21.

Romans 8:21 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

When we pull all of this together we can see that the disciples understood and taught that Jesus would remain in heaven until he sat on his throne and came to rule the kingdom of God. This further confirms what we saw earlier that the kingdom of God would be an earthly kingdom in the same way that the Gentile kingdoms, which precede it were.

Additionally, it confirms the Old Testament usage of the throne of David to refer to the descendants of King David who ruled the literal, earthly, kingdom of Israel. Luke 1:32's application of this term to Jesus tells us that Jesus' rule over Israel on the throne of David will also be an earthly rule over an earthly kingdom of Israel. Therefore, when we read Peter's instructions in Acts 3:21 we must understand that Jesus' sitting on his throne will not occur while he remains in heaven, but will begin when he returns from heaven to be present physically on earth. So, as long as Jesus is not physically present on earth, but remains in heaven we know that he is not reigning from the Davidic throne over the kingdom of God.

Our third criterion for determining that Jesus' is not currently sitting on his throne and reigning comes from the repeated description that his rule will be strictly enforced over the earth.

Daniel 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.

Revelation 2:27 And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father.

Revelation 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.

Revelation 19:15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

Psalm 2:1 Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? 2 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying, 3 Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. 4 He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision. 5 Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure. 6 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. 7 I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. 8 Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. 9 Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.

In each of the above passages we see Jesus' rule portrayed as absolute in the strongest terms. The nations of the earth will be totally subject to his reign and will not be able to resist submission to his rule. Psalm 110, which we have looked at several times previously, confirms this same thing, that in the day of his rule, Jesus will utterly crush those who oppose him.

Psalm 110:1 The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet." 2 The LORD will extend your mighty scepter from Zion; you will rule in the midst of your enemies. 3 Your troops will be willing on your day of battle. Arrayed in holy majesty, from the womb of the dawn you will receive the dew of your youth. 4 The LORD has sworn and will not change his mind: "You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek." 5 The Lord is at your right hand; he will crush kings on the day of his wrath. 6 He will judge the nations, heaping up the dead and crushing the rulers of the whole earth. 7 He will drink from a brook beside the way; therefore he will lift up his head.

Additionally, Zechariah 14 confirms concretely that Jesus rule will be absolute.

Zechariah 14:16 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles. 17 And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain. 18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, that have no rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles. 19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all nations that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

The significance of Psalm 110's tie in to this subject is significant since it is foundational to our understanding of Jesus' coming reign over the kingdom of God from the throne of David. What we must conclude from these passages is that Jesus' reign will be inaugurated by and maintained by his absolute sovereignty over the earth. Therefore, since as Hebrews 2:8 says "at present we do not see everything subject to him" we know that Jesus must not be currently reigning over the kingdom of God and that he must not be currently sitting on his throne, the throne of David.

So, from our study we have seen that:

1. Jesus' throne is the throne of David.
2. The Davidic throne is an earthly throne, in which the descendents of David ruled over the earthly kingdom of Israel physically from earth.
3. Like the other descendents of David, Jesus' will rule over the earthly kingdom of Israel, physically from the earth.
4. Jesus' throne is not the Father's throne in heaven.
5. Jesus' sat at the right hand of the Father's throne in heaven where he waits until his own rule on his own throne is inaugurated.
6. Jesus rule will coincide with a resurrection of the righteous dead, a gathering of the righteous living, his being physically present on earth, and the absolute submission of the nations to God's will.
7. Jesus has not sat on his throne, the throne of David, at the cross or any time since and is not currently ruling over the earth. We still await the time when Jesus' will begin to rule over the kingdom of God, seated on his throne, the throne of David.