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Atheism vs. Theism
Atheisms Circle of Reasons
"Atheism/Theism" vs. "Science, the Bible, & Creation"
Introduction and Charges
1, Deduction and Induction
2, Question 1
2, Questions 2 and 3
2, Summary and Question 4
3 and 4, Definitions
Acting as Mechanisms, Article 1
Acting as Mechanisms, Article 2
Acting as Mechanisms, Article 3
Razor and Conclusions
2 and 3
Theories, Unsubstantiated Hypotheses 1
Theories, Unsubstantiated Hypotheses 2
Theories, Unsubstantiated Hypotheses 3
Theories, Unsubstantiated Hypotheses 4
Life on Earth Imported from Outer Space
Circle of Reasons
God a White Crow?
As we discussed in our main series of articles regarding Atheism
and Theism, Atheists often charge that Theists begin by assuming
God exists and then end by concluding this very same thing,
that God exists. This, of course, would be circular reasoning.
In that series of articles, we demonstrated that Theists do
no such thing, but start with inherently atheistic assumptions.
The following quotes will establish that it is, in fact, the
Atheists who engage in circular reasoning. That is, Atheists
begin by assuming that life came about through unintelligent
forces, then resist considering any alternative to this assumption,
dismiss any shred of evidence that might indicate otherwise,
and end up with the not-so-surprising conclusion that life
came from unintelligent causation.
1) It is now generally agreed that if life arose spontaneously
by natural processes--a necessary assumption if we wish to
remain within the realm of science--it must have arisen fairly
quickly, more in a matter of millennia or centuries, perhaps
even less, than in millions of years. - American Scientist
NOTE: As this quote demonstrates, scientists define
intelligent agency as being outside of the realm of science
right from the start. Thus, in refusing to consider the alternative,
they force themselves to conclude the assumption they made
from the very start. It is the job of science to find out
what is true. This is an unfair and blinding approach to science
because if life was perhaps created by intelligent design,
this approach would prohibit us from discovering that fact.
2) An important rule in this exercise is to reconstruct
the earliest events in life's history without assuming they
proceeded with the benefit of foresight. Every step must be
accounted for in terms of antecedent and concomitant events.
Each must stand on its own and cannot be viewed as a preparation
for things to come. Any hint of teleology must be avoided.
- American Scientist article
NOTE: Once again, we see that scientists as a rule
will ignore or disregard any hint of intelligent agency during
their observation of nature and experimentation.
3) The synthesis of urea by Friedrich Wšhler in 1828 is
usually hailed as the first proof that a special "vital force"
is not needed for organic syntheses. Lingering traces of a
vitalistic mystique nevertheless long remained associated
with organic chemistry, seen as a special kind of life-dependent
chemistry that only human ingenuity could equate. The final
demystification of organic chemistry has been achieved by
the exploration of outer space. - American Scientist
NOTE: This quote exemplifies how it is the goal of
science to find an alternative to the apparent notion that
life would require causation similar to human ingenuity.
4) The development of RNA replication must have been the
second stage in the evolution of the RNA world. The problem
is not as simple as might appear at first glance. Attempts
at engineering--with considerably more foresight and technical
support than the prebiotic world could have enjoyed--an RNA
molecule capable of catalyzing RNA replication have failed
so far. - American Scientist article
5) It seems very unlikely that protometabolism produced
just the four bases found in RNA, A, U, G and C, ready by
some remarkable coincidence to engage in pairing and allow
replication. Chemistry does not have this kind of foresight.
In all likelihood, the four bases arose together with a number
of other substances similarly constructed of one or more rings
containing carbon and nitrogen. - American Scientist
NOTE: As indicated by Quote No. 2, foresight
implies purpose and purpose, would in turn, imply intelligent
causation. So, once again, the two above quotes demonstrate
that when the observation of nature seems to indicate the
involvement of foresight in natural processes, scientists
reject that notion and then come up with alternate hypothesis
to make foresight unnecessary.
6) It also seems likely that life would arise anywhere
similar conditions are found because many successive steps
are involved. A single, freak, highly improbable event can
conceivably happen. Many highly improbable events--drawing
a winning lottery number or the distribution of playing cards
in a hand of bridge--happen all the time. But a string of
improbable events--the same lottery number being drawn twice,
or the same bridge hand being dealt twice in a row--does not
happen naturally. - American Scientist article
7) Life is a cosmic imperative. The universe is awash with
life. - American Scientist article
NOTE: These two quotes demonstrates that the scientific
conclusion that life must be common in the universe is derived
from the assumption that life on earth cannot be a unique
or special occurrence, as that might imply intelligent causation.
Additionally, if life is unique to earth, that would also
demonstrate the extreme improbability of life coming about
by natural forces, which would again point to intelligent
intervention to overcome poor probability.
All of the above quotes attest to the fact that science begins
by prohibiting intelligent agency from being a possible explanation
for life and ends with concluding that intelligent agency
is not necessary to explain the origin of life. As our article
entitled, "Not Theories, Unsubstantiated
Hypotheses" this prohibition of intelligent agency is
so complete that scientists will come up with an endless string
of un-testable and unverifiable hypothesis (which they refer
to as Theories) just to provide any possible alternative explanation
to intelligent causation, including that life came from Outer
Space (SEE our article, "Scientists:
Life on Earth Imported from Outer Space.")
The Beginnings of Life on Earth
by Christian de Duve
By Carl Zimmer