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Basic Worldview:
104 Why Christianity?


Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 4)

Evidentiary Religions - Islam Introduction
Koran and Judeo-Christian Apostles
Koran and Judeo-Christian Scriptures
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 1)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 2)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 3)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 4)
Another Gospel and Explaining the Success of Islam (P. 1)
Explaining the Success of Islam (Part 2)
Explaining the Success of Islam (Part 3)
Islam Conclusions

Introduction
| Section 1 | Section 2 | Section 3




Contradictions with Christianity:

In our last segment, we discussed the extent to which the Koran denies and contradicts two of the most fundamental beliefs in the Old Testament from the Law of Moses. In this section, we will perform a similar demonstration with regard to the Koran and fundamental Christian beliefs, including the four following central Christian concepts.

1.) The Koran denies that Jesus is the Son of God and the Trinitarian view of God.

2.) The Koran denies that Jesus was crucified to atone for men's sins and that he rose from the dead three days later.

As we start out this section, it is important to establish the significance of the six hundred years between the founding of Christianity and the founding of Islam. In particular, it is necessary to establish the dramatic extent to which Christian scripture as well as the main, fundamental beliefs of Christianity were thoroughly established long before the time of Mohammed.

The collection of the books that comprise the Old Testament were established no later than the year 100 AD.

"Old Testament - There the books follow the order of the Palestinian Hebrew canon, which appears to have been adopted by c.A.D. 100, although most of the books had clearly received canonical status well before this time. The order is as follows: (1) the Torah or Law, the five books of the Pentateuch, i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy; (2) the Prophets, consisting of Joshua, Judges, First and Second Samuel, First and Second Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve (or Minor) Prophets; (3) the Writings (Hagiographa), a heterogeneous group to which belong (a) Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, (b) the Scrolls (Megillot), consisting of the Song of Solomon (Song of Songs), Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, and (c) Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and First and Second Chronicles." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

The New Testament books, including the four Gospels and Paul's 13 epistles, were written in the first century AD, over 500 years before Mohammed received his first revelation.

"The distinctively Christian portion of the Bible, consisting of 27 books of varying lengths dating from the earliest Christian period. The seven epistles whose authorship by St. Paul is undisputed were written c.A.D. 50-A.D. 60; most of the remaining books were written in the era A.D. 70-100, often incorporating earlier traditions. All were written in the koin idiom of the Greek language." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

And the collection of the majority of New Testament books was established by the close of the second century. This gathering of New Testament books into a collection that is recognized among the orthodox as the infallible Word of God is known as the New Testament Canon.

"Muratori, Ludovico Antonio - 1672-1750, Italian historian, a Roman Catholic priest. One of the foremost scholars of his age, he was long archivist and ducal librarian at Modena. He discovered the Muratorian Canon, a scrap of early Christian literature (c.A.D. 190) containing the earliest known list of the New Testament books." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001. - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"New Testament - The earliest extant orthodox list is the Muratorian canon (c.190 or possibly later), which contains most of the books finally accepted as canonical." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Biblical Literature - By the end of the 2nd century, Irenaeus used the four canonical Gospels, 13 letters of Paul, I Peter, I and II John, Revelation, Shepherd of Hermas (a work later excluded from the canon), and Acts. Justin Martyr (died c. 165), a Christian apologist, wrote of the reading of the Gospels, "the memoirs of the Apostles," in the services, in which they were the basis for sermons. In his writings he quoted freely from the Gospels, Hebrews, the Pauline Letters, I Peter, and Acts." - Britannica.com

And creeds declaring fundamental Christian beliefs had also been established long before Mohammed. Perhaps the earliest version of what many consider to be a "creed" is given by the Apostle Paul in his first epistle to the Corinthians.

1 Corinthians 15:3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

In the passage above, Paul writes a brief summary concerning one essential Christian belief: that Jesus died to provide atonement for sin, was buried, and was resurrected on the third day afterward. Paul also specifies that he is passing on this information to the Corinthians, just as it was passed on to him, which is in part why this is considered to be an early Christian creed. Keep in mind that Paul wrote this between 50-60 A.D. This would be only a few decades after Jesus' life, death, and resurrection and over five centuries before Mohammed lived.

Other creeds, including the Nicene Creed and the Apostles' Creed, had also been established long before Mohammed. The Nicene Creed was established by the middle to late fourth century.

"Nicene Creed - Until the early 20th century, it was universally assumed that the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (the more accurate term) was an enlarged version of the Creed of Nicaea, which was promulgated at the Council of Nicaea (325). It was further assumed that this enlargement had been carried out at the Council of Constantinople (381) with the object of bringing the Creed of Nicaea up to date in regard to heresies about the Incarnation and the Holy Spirit that had risen since the Council of Nicaea." - Britannica.com

The Nicene Creed contains all of the following statements concerning particular fundamental Christian beliefs.

"Nicene Creed -
We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth,
of all that is seen and unseen.
We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the
Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father.
Through him all things were made.
For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven:
by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man.
For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered, died, and was buried.
On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures;
...We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father
and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified.
He has spoken through the Prophets." - Britannica.com

The Apostles' Creed was established during the third and fourth centuries.

"Apostles' Creed - The present text of the Apostles' Creed is similar to the baptismal creed used in the church in Rome in the 3rd and 4th centuries." - Britannica.com

The Apostles' Creed contains all of the following statements concerning particular fundamental Christian beliefs.

"Apostles' Creed -
I [We] believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth.
I [We] believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord.
He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary.
He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried.
He descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again...
I [We] believe in the Holy Spirit..." - Britannica.com

Because of both the dating and contents of the writing of the New Testament books, the collection of the New Testament canon, and the creation of these early Creeds, the encyclopedia articles make the following assessment concerning the fundamental beliefs of early Christianity.

"Christianity - The central teachings of traditional Christianity are that Jesus is the Son of God, the second person of the Trinity of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; that his life on earth, his crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension into heaven are proof of God's love for humanity and God's forgiveness of human sins; and that by faith in Jesus one may attain salvation and eternal life (see creed). This teaching is embodied in the Bible, specifically in the New Testament, but Christians accept also the Old Testament as sacred and authoritative Scripture." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

The above quotations already sufficiently establish that Christianity from the earliest times fundamentally holds that God is a Trinity comprised of three eternal Persons (God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son, and the Holy Spirit) and that Jesus Christ died to atone for human sins and rose from the dead on the third day afterward. But at this point in our study, we will move ahead to further establish these fundamental Christian beliefs from the Christian scripture itself. Likewise, we will use quotes from the Koran to thoroughly demonstrate that the explicitly Koran contradicts Christianity and Christian scripture on these fundamental beliefs, which have defined Christianity from the very start.

It is important to keep in mind as we move forward that all of these fundamental Christian beliefs were established in Christianity through the scriptures from the first century and were repeatedly upheld by the fourth century creeds. This means that all these beliefs were established for 5 centuries before Mohammed is reported to have received his first revelation. This being the case, it is difficult to suggest when or where Christianity began to deviate from any supposed original form that would be compatible with Islam.


Koran Denies the Trinity and that Jesus is the Son of God

It is an absolute fact that the Koran repeatedly denies the Trinity and the belief Jesus Christ is the Son of God. We have already seen from the encyclopedia entries and creeds above that these are a fundamental beliefs in Christianity and has been from the time of the first century. Now we will demonstrate the thorough proclamation of this idea in the Christian scriptures.

Matthew 16:13 When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? 14 And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. 15 He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? 16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.

In this passage from Matthew 16, Jesus asks his disciples who they think that he is. Peter responds by stating that Jesus is "the Son of the living God." And Jesus commends Peter for this declaration and says that his Father in heaven revealed this to Peter. And, of course, by using the phrase "my Father...in heaven" right after Peter called him the "Son of God," Jesus is clearly affirming that God is his Father consequently affirming that he is God's Son.

Mark's Gospel, which is believed to be the earliest of the Gospels (written AD 60-80), begins with this declaration.

Mark 1:1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

There is no need for elaboration here. Mark's Gospel begins with the assertion that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

The opening chapter of Luke's Gospel contains the record of the angel's announcement to Mary that she will bear a child named Jesus.

Luke 1:26 And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, 27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary...30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. 31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. 32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: 33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? 35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.

In this passage, the angel who makes this announcement to Mary is the angel Gabriel. Gabriel makes several statements about Mary's son. First, he identifies that he is in fact talking about Jesus in verse 31. Then he states in verse 32 that Jesus will be called the "Son of the Highest," which is a clear reference to Jesus being the Son of the Most High God. And then finally, in verse 35, Gabriel plainly states that Jesus will be called the Son of God, particularly because of the fact that he will be conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit rather than by a human father.

Coincidentally, Gabriel is the same angel alleged to have delivered the revelations to Mohammed, which will become more significant as we examine what Gabriel allegedly delivered to Mohammed to say about Jesus.

"Muhammad - About 610, as he reflected on such matters, Muhammad had a vision of a majestic being (later identified with the angel Gabriel) and heard a voice saying to him, "You are the Messenger of God." This marked the beginning of his career as messenger (or apostle) of God (rasul Alla H ), or Prophet (nabi )." - Britannica.com

"Islam - The Qur'an (literally, Reading, or Recitation) is regarded as the Word, or Speech, of God delivered to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel." - Britannica.com

Say: 'Whoever is an enemy of Gabriel' (who has by God's grace revealed to you the Koran as a guide and joyful tiding for the faithful, confirming previous scriptures) 'whoever is an enemy of God, His angels, or His apostles, or of Gabriel or Michael, will surely find that God is the enemy of the unbelievers.' (Koran, p. 19, 2:93, 6th Para. - 2:98.)

Of all the Gospels, John's is even more explicit concerning the belief that Jesus is the Son of God. John's opening chapter is entirely about establishing that Jesus Christ is the second person of the Trinity, that he came from God, that he is God, and that he is therefore "the Son of God."

John 1:17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. 18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

As we have seen earlier in this series of articles, the Koran holds John the Baptist to be an apostle and a man of the scriptures.

We gave him Isaac and Jacob and guided both as We had guided Noah before them. Among his descendents were David and Solomon, Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron (thus do we reward the righteous); Zacharias and John, Jesus and Elias (all were upright men); and Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot...On those men We bestowed the Scriptures, wisdom, and prophethood. (Koran, p. 100, 6:80, 3rd Para. - 6:91, 1st Para.)

Thereupon Zacharias prayed to his Lord, saying: 'Lord grant me of Your own grace upright descendants. You hear all prayers.' And as he stood praying in the Shrine, the angels called out to him, saying: 'God bids you rejoice in the birth of John, whom shall confirm the Word of God. He shall be princely and chaste, a prophet and a righteous man.' (Koran, p. 46, 3:37, 4th Para. - 3:40, 4th Para.)

To John We said; 'Observe the Scriptures with a firm resolve.' We bestowed on him wisdom, grace, and purity while yet a child, and he grew up a righteous man; honouring his father and mother, and neither arrogant nor rebellious. Blessed was he on the day he was born and the day of his death; and peace be on him when he is raised to life. (Koran, p. 215, 19:12.)

In the following passage from John's Gospel, we see John the Baptist openly declaring that Jesus was the Son of God.

John 1:29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. 30 This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me. 31 And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. 32 And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 34 And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God. 35 Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples; 36 And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!

In the passage above, John the Baptist not only testifies that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, but John also testifies that Jesus Christ is the "Lamb of God," a title which denotes that Jesus will die as a sacrifice to atone for men's sins. This will become important later on as we discuss the Koran's statements concerning Jesus crucifixion.

John 1:48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel. 50 Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.

In this passage, Nathanael declares that Jesus is the Son of God because Jesus supernaturally knows that Nathanael had been sitting under a fig tree. Jesus responds by saying that Nathanael believes because of his comment concerning the fig tree. Then Jesus continues by assuring Nathanael that he will see greater signs than that to substantiate his belief that Jesus is the Son of God.

In John 3, Jesus himself makes some statements about his purpose as the Son of God sent into the world.

John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. 17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. 18 He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.

According to Jesus Christ himself in this passage, anyone who does not believe in the Son of God is condemned by God. Jesus also repeatedly affirms here that the Son of God was indeed sent into the world by God the Father.

This next passage from John echoes Jesus words from John chapter 3.

John 11:25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: 26 And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this? 27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.

In this passage, Jesus declares to Lazarus' sister Martha that he is "the resurrection, and the life." And similar to his statements in John 3 about the "Son of God," Jesus states that those who "believe on him will have eternal life. He then asks Martha if she believes this. And she responds by saying "yes" that he is the "Son of God."

John closes his Gospel with the following verses.

John 20:30 And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book: 31 But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.

In closing, John states that this entire Gospel was written so that those who read it might believe that Jesus is the Son of God. Clearly all four of the Gospel writers agreed that Jesus was the Son of God.

And in his second sermon in the book of Acts, Peter also declares that Jesus is the Son of God.

Acts 3:13 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him go. 14 But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you; 15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.

Here Peter declares that Jesus is the Son of God and not only that Jesus died but that God also raised him from the dead.

In his epistles, Paul's declares this repeatedly as well.

Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God, 2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,) 3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; 4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

2 Corinthians 1:18 But as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay. 19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, was not yea and nay, but in him was yea.

So, Paul affirms that Jesus is the Son of God and that he was killed and raised from the dead by God as a demonstration of that fact. And there is not enough space in these articles to quote how much Paul frequently testifies to these things throughout his epistles. Needless to say that in conclusion, not only do the creeds testify to the Christian belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, but the Gospels and epistles of Paul which were written over 5 centuries before Mohammed and considered to be part of the canon of the infallible Word of God as early as the second century testify thoroughly to this belief as well.

And, of course, the belief that Jesus is the Son of God and that God is his Father is tied directly to the Christian understanding of the Trinity. The doctrine of the Trinity asserts that God is One Being who is three eternal Persons, including the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit. The belief in the Trinity is attested by the verses above which establish that Jesus is the Son of God, thereby asserting the existence of God the Father and God the Son.

In the three passages below from John's Gospel, Jesus speaks of the Holy Spirit while at the same time speaking of God as his Father, which in turn places him as the Son of God.

John 14:16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; 17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

John 14:26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

John 15:26 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:

Likewise, all of the following verses further establish the existence of the Trinity by testifying to the existence of the Holy Spirit side by side with the Father and the Son.

Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

Galatians 4:4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, 5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. 6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

Romans 8:15 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: 17 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.

1 John 5:5 Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God? 6 This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. 7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.

So, what does the Koran have to say about these beliefs? The Koran explicitly and repeatedly denies that Jesus is the Son of God.

Unbelievers are those who declare: 'God is the Messiah, the son of Mary.' Say: 'Who could prevent God, if He so willed, from destroying the Messiah, the son of Mary, his mother, and all the people of the earth? God has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them. He creates what He will; and God has power over all things.' (Koran, p. 81, 5:15, 2nd Para.)

Unbelievers are those that say: 'God is the Messiah, the son of Mary.' For the Messiah himself said: 'Children of Israel, serve God, my Lord and your Lord.' He that worships other deities besides God, God will deny him Paradise, and the Fire shall be his home. None shall help the evil-doers. Unbelievers are those that say: 'God is one of three.' There is but one God. If they do not desist from so saying, those of them that disbelieve shall be sternly punished. (Koran, p. 87, 5:70, 2nd Para. - 3rd Para.)

The Jews say Ezra is the son of God, while the Christians say the Messiah is the son of God. Such are their assertions, by which they imitate the infidels of old. God confound them! How perverse they are! They make their clerics and their monks, and of the Messiah, the son of Mary, Lords besides God; though they were ordered to serve one God only. There is no god but Him. Exalted be He above those they deify besides Him! (Koran, p. 136, 9:27, 4th Para. - 9:31, 1st Para.)

They say: 'God has begotten a son.' God forbid! Self-sufficient is He. His is all that the heavens and the earth contain. Surely for this you have no sanction. Would you say of God what you know not? Say: 'Those that invent falsehoods about God shall not prosper. They may take their ease in this life, but to Us they shall then return, and for their unbelief We will make them taste the grievous torment.' (Koran, p. 153, 10:68, 1st Para. - 4th Para.)

Praise be to God who has revealed the Book to His servant shorn of contradictions and unswerving from the truth, so that he may give warning of a dire scourge from Himself, proclaim to the faithful who do good works that a rich and everlasting recompense awaits them, and admonish those who say that God has begotten a son. Surely of this they could have no knowledge, neither they nor their fathers: a monstrous blasphemy is that which they utter. They preach nothing but falsehood. Yet if they deny this revelation, you may destroy yourself with grief, sorrowing over them. (Koran, p. 205, 18:1 - p. 206, 18:5, 2nd Para.)

Such was Jesus the son of Mary. That is the whole truth, which they still doubt. God forbid that He Himself should beget a son! When He decrees a thing He need only say: 'Be,' and it is. God is my Lord and your Lord: therefore serve Him. That is a straight path. Yet are the sects at odds among themselves. But when the fateful day arrives, woe betide the unbelievers! There hearing and their sight will be sharpened on the day they appear before Us. Truly, the wrongdoers are today in evident error. (Koran, p. 215, 19:22, 3rd Para. - p. 216, 19:29, 5th Para.)

Never has God begotten a son, nor is there any other god besides Him. Were this otherwise, each god would govern his own creation, each holding himself above the other. Exalted be God above their falsehoods! (Koran, p. 244, 23:86, 8th Para.)

Say: 'If the Lord of Mercy had a son, I would be the first to worship him.' Exalted be the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne, above their falsehoods! (Koran, p. 347, 43:72, 6th Para. - p. 348, 43:89.)

Say: 'It is revealed to me that a band of jinn listened to God's revelations and said: "We have heard a wondrous Koran giving guidance to the right path. We believed in it and shall henceforth serve none besides Our Lord. He (exalted be the glory of our Lord!) has taken no consort, nor has He begotten any children. The Blaspheming One among us has uttered a wanton falsehood against God, although we had supposed no man or jinnee could tell of God what is untrue."' (Koran, p. 408, 72:1.)

Say: 'God is One, the Eternal God. He begot none, nor was He begotten. None is equal to Him.' (Koran, p. 434, 112:1 - 112:4.)

And the Koran explicitly denies the Trinity as well.

People of the Book, (1) do not transgress the bounds of your religion. Speak nothing but the truth about God. The apostle and His Word which He cast to Mary: a spirit from Him. So believe in God and His apostles and do not say: 'Three.' Forbear, and it shall be better for you. God is but one God. God forbid that He should have a son! His is all that the heavens and earth contain. God is the all-sufficient protector. The Messiah does not disdain to be a servant of God, nor do the angels who are nearest to Him, Those who through arrogance disdain His service shall all be brought before Him. (Koran, p. 78, 4:171, 1st Para.)

Unbelievers are those that say: 'God is the Messiah, the son of Mary.' For the Messiah himself said: 'Children of Israel, serve God, my Lord and your Lord.' He that worships other deities besides God, God will deny him Paradise, and the Fire shall be his home. None shall help the evil-doers. Unbelievers are those that say: 'God is one of three.' There is but one God. If they do not desist from so saying, those of them that disbelieve shall be sternly punished. (Koran, p. 87, 5:70, 2nd Para. - 3rd Para.)

Say: 'God is One, the Eternal God. He begot none, nor was He begotten. None is equal to Him.' (Koran, p. 434, 112:1 - 112:4.)

These three passages from the Koran provide the basis for common reference sources such as the Encyclopedia Britannica to state the following:

"Islam - The doctrine about God in the Qur'an is rigorously monotheistic: God is one and unique; he has no partner and no equal. Trinitarianism, the Christian belief that God is three persons in one substance, is vigorously repudiated." - Britannica.com

From these excerpts we can clearly see that the Koran denies the essential Christian beliefs that Jesus is the Son of God and that God is a Trinity comprised of three eternal Persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), both of which were well established among the Christians since the first century AD, five hundred years before Mohammed. Therefore, on these fundamental issues, the Koran is again in contradiction with Judeo-Christian scripture, which it claims is a reliable revelation of God's Word.


The Koran Denies the Sacrificial Death And Resurrection

Each of the Gospels is clear that Jesus Christ died and rose from the dead on the third day afterward, and Paul also attests to this in his epistles.

Matthew 27:26 Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified...35 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots...50 Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost...59 And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60 And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.

Matthew 28:5 And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. 6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.

Mark 15:15 And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified...24 And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take...37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost...44 And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. 45 And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. 46 And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.

Mark 16:6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him...9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils...14 Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

Luke 23:23 And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. 24 And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required. 25 And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will...33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left...46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost...52 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. 53 And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.

Luke 24:4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments: 5 And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? 6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, 7 Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again...46 And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: 47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

John 19:15 But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar. 16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away. 17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha: 18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst...30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost...33 But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs...40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. 41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. 42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

John 21:14 This is now the third time that Jesus shewed himself to his disciples, after that he was risen from the dead.

And, of course, Peter and Paul testify to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ as well.

Acts 3:13 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him go. 14 But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you; 15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.

Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God, 2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,) 3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; 4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

1 Corinthians 15:3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

And we have also seen in a previous segment above that the creeds attested to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ as well.

So, what does the Koran have to say about this belief? It directly denies it.

"Islam - Prophethood is indivisible, and the Qur'an requires recognition of all prophets as such without discrimination. Yet they are not all equal, some of them being particularly outstanding in qualities of steadfastness and patience under trial. Abraham , Noah , Moses , and Jesus were such great prophets. As vindication of the truth of their mission, God often vests them with miracles: Abraham was saved from fire, Noah from the deluge, and Moses from the Pharaoh. Not only was Jesus born from the Virgin Mary, but God also saved him from crucifixion at the hands of the Jews." - Britannica.com

They denied the truth and uttered a monstrous falsehood against Mary. They declared: 'We have put to death the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the apostle of God.' They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did.(1) Those that disagreed about him were in doubt concerning him; they knew nothing about him that was not sheer conjecture; they did not slay him for certain. God lifted him up to Him. (Koran, p. 76, 4:153, 4th Para. - p. 77, 4:158, 1st Para.) (Footnote 1: Or, literally, 'he was made to resemble another for them.')

NOTE: The footnote above was included by translator N.J. Dawood.

As can be seen in the passage above, the Koran explicitly denies that Jesus was crucified or killed and it declares such statements to be blasphemous. Consequently, by denying that Jesus was crucified, the Koran also denies the atonement whereby Jesus' sacrificial death provides forgiveness for men's sins. For how can Jesus' death provide atonement if he was not killed or crucified? It can't. And the Koran also repeatedly denies the idea of one person interceding or ransoming others from God's wrath.

Children of Israel, remember the favour I have bestowed upon you, and that I exalted you above the nations. Guard yourselves against the day on which no soul shall stand for another: when no intercession shall be accepted for it, no ransom taken from it, no help be given it. (Koran, p. 14, 2:47.)

Children of Israel, remember the favour I have bestowed upon you, and that I exalted you above the nations. Guard yourselves against a day on which no soul shall stand for another: when no ransom shall be accepted from it, no intercession avail it, no help be given it. (Koran, p. 22, 2:122.)

Have they chosen others besides God to intercede for them? Say: 'Even though they have no power nor understanding?' Say: 'Intercession is wholly in the hands of God. He has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth. To Him shall you be recalled.' (Koran, p. 325, 39:42, 2nd Para. - 3rd Para.)

Forewarn them of the approaching day, when men's hearts will leap up to their throats and choke them; when the wrongdoers will have neither friend nor intercessor to be heard. He knows the furtive look and the secret thought. God will judge with fairness, but the idols to which they pray besides Him can judge nothing. God alone hears all and observes all. (Koran, p. 329, 40:18.)

Say: 'If the Lord of Mercy had a son, I would be the first to worship him.' Exalted be the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne, above their falsehoods! Let them paddle, let them play, until they face the day they are promised. It is he who is God in heaven and God on earth; He is the Wise One, the All-knowing. Blessed be he who has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them! He alone has knowledge of the Hour of Doom, and to Him shall you be recalled. The gods to whom they pray besides Him have not the power to intercede for them. None can intercede for them save him who knows the truth and testifies to it. Yet if you ask them who created them, they will surely say, 'God.' How then can they turn away from Him? The Apostle says: 'Lord, these men are unbelievers.' Bear with them and wish them peace. They shall learn. (Koran, p. 347, 43:72, 6th Para. - p. 348, 43:89.)

No intercessor's plea shall save them. Why then do they turn away from this reminder, like frightened asses fleeing from a lion? Indeed, each one of them demands a scripture of his own to be unrolled before him. No, they have no fear of the hereafter. No. This is an admonition. Let him who will, take heed. But none takes heed except by the will of God. He is the Lord of goodness and forgiveness. (Koran, p. 412, 74:46, 2nd Para. - 4th Para.)

So, with regard to the crucifixion, sacrificial death, atonement, and resurrection on the third day, the Koran is in contradiction with the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which it claims are reliable revelations of the Word of God.


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