Home Church Community

Statement of Beliefs

Contact Us

Search Our Site

Bible Study Resource


Printer Friendly Version

Basic Worldview:
104 Why Christianity?


Propositional Religions 4 - Shintoism, Confucianism

Propositional Religions 1 - Deism, Pantheism, and Naturalism
Propositional Religions 2 - Intro, Hinduism, Buddhism
Propositional Religions 3 - Jainism, Taoism
Propositional Religions 4 - Shintoism, Confucianism
Propositional Religions 5 - Sikhism
Propositional Religions 6 - Babism and Baha'ism, Zoroastrianism
Propositional Religions 7 - Neopaganism, Mysticism (Syncretism)
Propositional Religions 8 - Mysticism
Propositional Religions 9 - Mysticism, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism

Introduction
| Section 1 | Section 2 | Section 3




Shinto

Shinto, or Shintoism as is may be called, is an ancient and modern Japanese religion. As some of the following quotes will attest to there are many forms of modern Shinto, with some diversity of beliefs. However, for the purposes of this portion of our study we are primarily interested in ancient Shinto, its origin and any potential evidence it may offer for the accuracy of its beliefs.

"Shinto - Shinto cannot be traced to its beginnings, because until the 5th cent. (when Chinese writing was introduced into Japan) the myths and rituals were transmitted orally. The written record of the ancient beliefs and customs first appeared in the Kojiki [records of ancient matters], prepared under imperial order and completed in A.D. 712. From those first Japanese accounts of the religion of times then already far past, it can be seen that a worship of the forces and forms of nature had grown into a certain stage of polytheism in which spiritual conceptions had only a small place. Nor was there any clear realization of a personal character in the beings held to be divine, and there were practically no images of the deities." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Shinto - indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Japan. The word Shinto, which literally means 'the way of kami' (kami means 'mystical,' 'superior,' or 'divine,' generally sacred or divine power, specifically the various gods or deities), came into use in order to distinguish indigenous Japanese beliefs from Buddhism, which had been introduced into Japan in the 6th century AD. Shinto has no founder, no official sacred scriptures in the strict sense, and no fixed dogmas, but it has preserved its guiding beliefs throughout the ages." - Britannica.com

"Shinto - Broadly speaking, Shinto has no founder. When the Japanese people and Japanese culture became aware of themselves, Shinto was already there. Nor has it any official scripture that can be compared tothe Bible in Christianity or to the Qur'an in Islam. The Kojiki ('Records of Ancient Matters') and the Nihon-gi, or Nihon shoki ('Chronicles of Japan'), are regarded in a sense as sacred books of Shinto. They were written in AD 712 and 720, respectively, and are compilations of the oral traditions of ancient Shinto. But they are also books about the history, topography, and literature of ancient Japan. It is possible to construct Shinto doctrines from them by interpreting the myths and religious practices they describe." - Britannica.com

Right off the bat we can see that Shinto is not going to pass our first criterion of identifiable historical origins. As the above quotes all state, the origin of Shinto beliefs is not known, available, or understood. In this way, Shinto is similar to Hinduism, because without historically identifiable origins neither religion provides information for why and by whom its views were initiated formed or why they were initially accepted. Like Hinduism, Shinto does not provide any evidence, which can be objectively verified in order to support its view of God and the universe. Therefore, we have no reason to accept Shinto's truth claims.

However, though this conclusion is already established, we can add more evidence to support its acceptance. For instance, though Shinto's origins are unknown to us, much of ancient and modern Shinto's beliefs are the result of religions we have already studied.

"Shinto - Buddhism was officially introduced into Japan in AD 552 and developed gradually. In the 8th century there emerged tendencies to interpret Shinto from a Buddhist viewpoint. Shinto kami were viewed as protectors of Buddhism; hence shrines for tutelary kami were built within the precincts of Buddhist temples. Kami were made equivalent to deva (the Buddhist Sanskrit term for 'gods') who rank highest in the Realm of Ignorance, according to Buddhist notions. Thus kami, like other creatures, were said to be suffering because they were unable to escape the endless cycle of transmigration; help was therefore offered to kami in the form of Buddhist discipline. Buddhist temples were even built within Shinto shrine precincts, and Buddhist sutras (scriptures) were read in front of kami. By the late 8th century kami were thought to be avatars, or incarnations, of buddhas and bodhisattvas. Bodhisattva names were given to kami, and Buddhist statues were placed even in the inner sanctuaries of Shinto shrines. In some cases, Buddhist priests were in charge of the management of Shinto shrines." - Britannica.com

"Shinto - ancient native religion of Japan still practiced in a form modified by the influence of Buddhism and Confucianism. In its present form Shinto is characterized less by religious doctrine or belief than by the observance of popular festivals and traditional ceremonies and customs, many involving pilgrimages to shrines. Shinto, a term created to distinguish the indigenous religion from Buddhism, is the equivalent of the Japanese kami-no-michi, 'the way of the gods' or 'the way of those above.' The word kami, meaning 'above' or 'superior,' is the name used to designate a great host of supernatural beings or deities." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Shinto - A Shinto shrine, unaffected by other religious influences, is a simple unpainted wooden building, having some object within it that is believed to be the dwelling place of the kami. After Buddhism entered Japan in the 6th cent. A.D., it had some influence on Shinto. In many shrines Buddhist priests serve, and worship under their direction is more elaborate than pure Shinto." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Shinto - Confucianism is believed to have reached Japan in the 5th century AD, and by the 7th century it had spread among the people, together with Chinese Taoism and yin-yang (harmony of two basic forces of nature) philosophy. All of these stimulated the development of Shinto ethical teachings. With the gradual centralization of political power, Shinto began to develop as a national cult as well. Myths of various clans were combined and reorganized into a pan-Japanese mythology with the Imperial Household as its centre. The kami of the Imperial Household and the tutelary kami of powerful clans became the kami of the whole nation and people, and offerings were made by the state every year. Such practices were systematized supposedly around the start of the Taika-era reforms in 645. By the beginning of the 10th century, about 3,000 shrines throughout Japan were receiving state offerings. As the power of the central government declined, however, the system ceased to be effective, and after the 13th century only a limited number of important shrines continued to receive the Imperial offerings. Later, after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the old system was revived." - Britannica.com

So, we can see that much of what is currently called Shinto beliefs is derived from its interaction with other ancient religions, some of which we have already rejected. (We will cover Confucianism momentarily.) Attempts to remove the contributions of these other religions and discover authentic Shinto beliefs have been a historically recent development.

"Shinto - Ise, or Watarai, Shinto was the first theoretical school of anti-Buddhistic Shinto in that it attempted to exclude Buddhist accretions and also tried to formulate a pure Japanese version. Watarai Shinto appeared in Ise during the 13th century as a reaction against the Shinto-Buddhist amalgamation. Konton (chaos), or Kizen (non-being), was the basic kami of the universe for Watarai Shinto and was regarded as the basis of all beings, including the buddhas and bodhisattvas. Purification, which had been practiced since the time of ancient Shinto, was given much deeper spiritual meanings. Shojiki (defined as uprightness or righteousness) and prayers were emphasized as the means by which to be united with kami." - Britannica.com

And although Shinto does borrow many beliefs from other ancient Asian religions, its beliefs are not formalized or dogmatically held.

"Shinto - A religion native to Japan, characterized by veneration of nature spirits and ancestors and by a lack of formal dogma." - The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

"Shinto - In present-day Shinto there is no dogmatic system and no formulated code of morals. Shinto practices can be found abroad wherever large Japanese communities exist, as in the United States and South America. Some of the newer sects stress world peace and brotherhood as part of their philosophy." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Shinto - Shinto consists of the traditional Japanese religious practices as well as the beliefs and life attitudes that are in accord with these practices. Shinto is more readily observed in the social life of the Japanese people and in their personal motivations than in a pattern of formal belief or philosophy. It remains closely connected with the Japanese value system and the Japanese people's ways of thinking and acting." - Britannica.com

To this lack of formal dogma, Shinto also is without ancient sacred text.

"Shinto - Shinto cannot be traced to its beginnings, because until the 5th cent. (when Chinese writing was introduced into Japan) the myths and rituals were transmitted orally. The written record of the ancient beliefs and customs first appeared in the Kojiki [records of ancient matters], prepared under imperial order and completed in A.D. 712. From those first Japanese accounts of the religion of times then already far past, it can be seen that a worship of the forces and forms of nature had grown into a certain stage of polytheism in which spiritual conceptions had only a small place. Nor was there any clear realization of a personal character in the beings held to be divine, and there were practically no images of the deities." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Shinto - Broadly speaking, Shinto has no founder. When the Japanese people and Japanese culture became aware of themselves, Shinto was already there. Nor has it any official scripture that can be compared tothe Bible in Christianity or to the Qur'an in Islam. The Kojiki ('Records of Ancient Matters') and the Nihon-gi, or Nihon shoki ('Chronicles of Japan'), are regarded in a sense as sacred books of Shinto. They were written in AD 712 and 720, respectively, and are compilations of the oral traditions of ancient Shinto. But they are also books about the history, topography, and literature of ancient Japan. It is possible to construct Shinto doctrines from them by interpreting the myths and religious practices they describe." - Britannica.com

"Shinto - The Japanese classics also contain myths and legends concerning the so-called 800 myriads of kami (yao-yorozu no kami; literally, yao equals 800 and yorozu 10,000). Some of them are the tutelary deities of clans and later became the tutelary kami of their respective local communities. Many others, however, are not enshrined in sanctuaries and have no direct connections with the actual Shinto faith." - Britannica.com

So with no known historical origins or founder, no formal doctrine, and sacred text written 1,200 years after its inception, Shinto is not only completely devoid of any evidence by which one might attempt to verify its beliefs, but it also has no formally professed beliefs in the first place.

"Shinto - Shinto has no founder, no official sacred scriptures in the strict sense, and no fixed dogmas, but it has preserved its guiding beliefs throughout the ages." - Britannica.com

Because of these facts, we are left without any means whatsoever to verify the accuracy of any Shinto view of God or the universe. As such, we have no reason to accept Shinto beliefs as accurate, but instead, must reject them based on a lack of evidence.


Confucianism

Since several of the religions that we have studied have mentioned Confucianism we will now cover its relevance to this study. The following quotes will quickly establish that early Confucianism was not so much a religious system, but a social and ethical code meant to ensure and maintain the stability of Chinese society, which at the time was crumbling.

"Confucianism - the way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th-5th century BC and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia." - Britannica.com

"Confucius - c.551-479? B.C., Chinese sage. Positive evidence concerning the life of Confucius is scanty; modern scholars base their accounts largely on the Analects, a collection of sayings and short dialogues apparently collected by his disciples, and discard most of the later legends. Confucius was born in the feudal state of Lu, in modern Shandong prov. Distressed by the constant warfare between the Chinese states and by the venality and tyranny of the rulers, he urged a system of morality and statecraft that would preserve peace and provide people with stable and just government. He gathered about him a number of disciples, some occupying high positions, although Confucius himself was at most granted an insignificant sinecure, possibly because of his extremely outspoken manner toward his superiors. From about his 55th to his 65th year he journeyed to several neighboring states, but he was never able to induce any ruler to grant him high office so that he might introduce his reforms. Later tradition depicts Confucius as a man who made special study of ancient books, in an effort to restore an older social order. It is said that he was a minister of state and the author, editor, or compiler of the Wu Ching [five classics] (see Chinese literature). His supposed doctrines are embodied in Confucianism." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucianism - In its early form (before the 3d cent. B.C.) Confucianism was primarily a system of ethical precepts for the proper management of society. It envisaged man as essentially a social creature who is bound to his fellows by jen, a term often rendered as 'humanity,' or 'human-kind-ness.' Jen is expressed through the five relations—sovereign and subject, parent and child, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, and friend and friend. Of these, the filial relation is usually stressed." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucianism - In its early form...The relations are made to function smoothly by an exact adherence to li, which denotes a combination of etiquette and ritual. In some of these relations a person may be superior to some and inferior to others. If a person in a subordinate status wishes to be properly treated that person must—applying a principle similar to the Golden Rule—treat his or her own inferiors with propriety. Correct conduct, however, proceeds not through compulsion, but through a sense of virtue inculcated by observing suitable models of deportment. The ruler, as the moral exemplar of the whole state, must be irreproachable, but a strong obligation to be virtuous rests upon all." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucianism - By Confucius' time, however, the feudal ritual system had been so fundamentally undermined that the political crises also precipitated a profound sense of moral decline: the centre of symbolic control could no longer hold the kingdom from total disintegration." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - Although often grouped with the major historical religions, Confucianism differs from them by not being an organized religion. Nonetheless, it spread to other East Asian countries under the influence of Chinese literate culture and exerted a profound influence on spiritual and political life." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - Confucius' hero was Chou Kung, or the Duke of Chou (d. 1094 BC), who was said to have helped consolidate and refine the "feudal" ritual system. This system was based on blood ties, marriage alliances, and old covenants as well as on newly negotiated contracts and was an elaborate system of mutual dependence. The appeal to cultural values and social norms for the maintenance of interstate as well as domestic order was predicated on a shared political vision, namely, that authority lies in universal kingship, heavily invested with ethical and religious power by the mandate of Heaven, and that social solidarity is achieved not by legal constraint but by ritual observance. Its implementation enabled the Chou dynasty to survive in relative peace and prosperity for more than five centuries." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - Law and punishment are the minimum requirements for order; the higher goal of social harmony, however, can only be attained by virtue expressed through ritual performance. To perform rituals, then, is to take part in a communal act to promote mutual understanding." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - Confucianism, a Western term that has no counterpart in Chinese, is a world view, a social ethic, a political ideology, a scholarly tradition, and a way of life. Sometimes viewed as a philosophy and sometimes as a religion, Confucianism may be understood as an all-encompassing humanism that neither denies nor slights Heaven. East Asians may profess themselves to be Shintoists, Taoists, Buddhists, Muslims, or Christians, but, by announcing their religious affiliations, seldom do they cease to be Confucians." - Britannica.com

From the above quotes we see that Confucius' teaching originated as a means to prevent the continued decline in the social order of ancient Chinese society. Though it is true that Confucianism incorporated religious elements, for the most part Confucius was circulating a social ethic, which incorporated the religion of the culture and not a religious system in and of itself. And though the west has identified this system or philosophy with Confucius, it did not historically originate with him. Instead, he merely reasserted it as a dominant social force in China. In fact, according to some sources historical information on Confucius himself is limited.

"Confucius - c.551-479? B.C., Chinese sage. Positive evidence concerning the life of Confucius is scanty; modern scholars base their accounts largely on the Analects, a collection of sayings and short dialogues apparently collected by his disciples, and discard most of the later legends...Later tradition depicts Confucius as a man who made special study of ancient books, in an effort to restore an older social order. It is said that he was a minister of state and the author, editor, or compiler of the Wu Ching [five classics] (see Chinese literature). His supposed doctrines are embodied in Confucianism." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucianism - The story of Confucianism does not begin with Confucius. Nor was Confucius the founder of Confucianism in the sense that Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and Christ the founder of Christianity. Rather Confucius considered himself a transmitter who consciously tried to reanimate the old in order to attain the new. He proposed retrieving the meaning of the past by breathing vitality into seemingly outmoded rituals. Confucius' love of antiquity was motivated by his strong desire to understand why certain rituals, such as the ancestral cult, reverence for Heaven, and mourning ceremonies, had survived for centuries. His journey into the past was a search for roots, which he perceived as grounded in humanity's deepest needs for belonging and communicating. He had faith in the cumulative power of culture. The fact that traditional ways had lost vitality did not, for him, diminish their potential for regeneration in the future. In fact, Confucius' sense of history was so strong that he saw himself as a conservationist responsible for the continuity of the cultural values and the social norms that had worked so well for the civilization of the Chou dynasty." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - The scholarly tradition envisioned by Confucius can be traced to the sage-kings of antiquity. Although the earliest dynasty confirmed by archaeology is the Shang dynasty (18th-12th century BC), the historical period that Confucius claimed as relevant was much earlier. Confucius may have initiated a cultural process known in the West as Confucianism, but he and those who followed him considered themselves part of a tradition, later identified by Chinese historians as the ju-chia, 'scholarly tradition,' that had its origins two millennia previously, when the legendary Yao and Shun created a civilized world through moral persuasion." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - Confucius' hero was Chou Kung, or the Duke of Chou (d. 1094 BC), who was said to have helped consolidate and refine the "feudal" ritual system." - Britannica.com

From these quotes we see that Confucian doctrine is founded upon beliefs and traditions, which though reinstated or reemphasized by Confucius, actually pre-date him by several centuries or more. So we see that Confucius' teachings resulted from his reverence for history and tradition, which came before. In fact, Confucius himself acknowledges that he does not have or offer any special knowledge or understanding.

"Confucianism - Confucius, however, made it explicit that he was far from attaining sagehood and that all he really excelled in was "love of learning" (5:27). To him, learning not only broadened his knowledge and deepened his self-awareness but also defined who he was. He frankly admitted that he was not born endowed with knowledge, nor did he belong to the class of men who could transform society without knowledge. Rather, he reported that he used his ears widely and followed what was good in what he had heard and used his eyes widely and retained in his mind what he had seen. His learning constituted "a lower level of knowledge" (7:27), a level that was presumably accessible to the majority of human beings. In this sense Confucius was neither a prophet with privileged access to the divine nor a philosopher who had already seen the truth but a teacher of humanity who was also an advanced fellow traveler on the way to self-realization." - Britannica.com

Yet though the traditions, which Confucius sought to reestablish started hundreds of years before Confucius lived or taught, our understanding of them comes from the records of Confucius' teachings (known as the Analects) written by the second generation of his students, which in and of itself does not pose a problem. In fact, to have Confucius teaching recorded by first hand witnesses (his disciples) would be more than adequate according to historical standards, to establish the historicity of Confucius and his teaching. At least ordinarily that would be the case. However, the problem is that we also know from history that after his death, Confucius students splintered off into subgroups. Splitting of this kind would not necessarily pose a problem so long as it occurred centuries later, while the original witnesses to the teaching were in accord with one another. However, in the case of Confucius, there appears to be immediate disagreement among his students as to what exactly Confucius taught. These splits make it even more difficult to know what the correct understanding Confucian teaching was.

"Confucianism - moral and religious system of China. Its origins go back to the Analects (see Chinese literature), the sayings attributed to Confucius, and to ancient commentaries, including that of Mencius." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucius - Originally Kong Fuzi. Chinese philosopher whose Analects contain a collection of his sayings and dialogues compiled by disciples after his death." - The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

"Confucianism - The Lun-yü (Analects), the most revered sacred scripture in the Confucian tradition, was probably compiled by the second generation of Confucius' disciples. Based primarily on the Master's sayings, preserved in both oral and written transmissions, it captures the Confucian spirit in form and content in the same way that the Platonic dialogues embody Socratic pedagogy." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - The Analects has often been viewed by the critical modern reader as a collection of unrelated conversations randomly put together. This impression may have resulted from the mistaken conception of Confucius as a mere commonsense moralizer who gave practical advice to students in everyday situations." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - The purpose, then, in compiling these distilled statements centering on Confucius seems not to have been to present an argument or to record an event but to offer an invitation to readers to take part in an ongoing conversation. Through the Analects Confucians for centuries learned to reenact the awe-inspiring ritual of participating in a conversation with Confucius." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - According to Han-fei-tzu (d. 233 BC), shortly after Confucius' death his followers split into eight distinct schools, all claiming to be the legitimate heir to the Confucian legacy. Presumably each school was associated with or inspired by one or more of Confucius' disciples. Yet the Confucians did not exert much influence in the 5th century BC. Although the mystic Yen Yüan (or Yen Hui), the faithful Tseng-tzu, the talented Tzu Kung, the erudite Tzu-hsia, and others may have generated a great deal of enthusiasm among the second generation of Confucius' students, it was not at all clear at the time that the Confucian tradition was to emerge as the most powerful one in Chinese history." - Britannica.com

Before we move on to our next candidate, we should at least spend sometime understanding Confucianism's religious elements, which it not only borrowed from existing, older Chinese traditions (such as from Chou cosmology, see first quote below), but has picked up from some of the other Asian religious movements developing at that time or simply been added by Confucians many centuries later.

"Confucianism - The idea of Heaven, unique in Chou cosmology, was compatible with the concept of the Lord-on-High in the Shang dynasty. The Lord-on-High may have referred to the progenitor of the Shang royal lineage so that the Shang kings could claim their position as divine descendants, as the emperors of Japan later did, but Heaven to the Chou kings was a much more generalized anthropomorphic God. They believed that the mandate of Heaven (the functional equivalent of the will of the Lord-on-High) was not constant and that there was no guarantee that the descendants of the Chou royal house would be entrusted with kingship, for "Heaven sees as the people see and Heaven hears as the people hear"; thus the virtues of the kings were essential for the maintenance of their power and authority. This emphasis on benevolent rulership, expressed in numerous bronze inscriptions, was both a reaction to the collapse of the Shang dynasty and an affirmation of a deep-rooted world view." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - Confucianism has often had to contend with other religious systems, notably Taoism and Buddhism, and has at times, especially from the 3d to the 7th cent., suffered marked declines. It enjoyed a renaissance in the late T'ang dynasty (618-906), but it was not until the Sung dynasty (960-1279) and the appearance of neo-Confucianism that Confucianism became the dominant philosophy among educated Chinese. Drawing on Taoist and Buddhist ideas, neo-Confucian thinkers formulated a system of metaphysics, which had not been a part of older Confucianism. They were particularly influenced by Ch'an or Zen Buddhism: nevertheless they rejected the Taoist search for immortality and Buddhist monasticism and ethical universalism, upholding instead the hierarchical political and social vision of the early Confucian teachings." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucianism - The practice of offering sacrifices and other veneration to Confucius in special shrines began in the 1st cent. A.D. and continued into the 20th cent." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Confucianism - Confucianism, a Western term that has no counterpart in Chinese, is a world view, a social ethic, a political ideology, a scholarly tradition, and a way of life. Sometimes viewed as a philosophy and sometimes as a religion, Confucianism may be understood as an all-encompassing humanism that neither denies nor slights Heaven. East Asians may profess themselves to be Shintoists, Taoists, Buddhists, Muslims, or Christians, but, by announcing their religious affiliations, seldom do they cease to be Confucians." - Britannica.com

As we conclude our examination of Confucianism we can see that an evaluation of Confucian religious claims will be nearly impossible for several reasons relating to the information available to us about its historical development. First, Confucianism is not strictly speaking a religion. It began simply as a social ethic, which incorporated and utilized the religious elements of society in order to restore and preserve the social order of ancient Chinese culture, which during Confucius' life was in a state of decline.

Second, the ideals upon which Confucianism is founded actually did not originate with Confucius himself, but have their roots hundreds of years before his life. Third, Confucius does not claim to have or offer any special knowledge or understanding. Fourth, the writing that we have about Confucian teaching comes centuries after its origins in ancient pre-Confucian China and was only recorded by the second generation of Confucius' disciples, who at the time were disagreeing among themselves as to which held the correct understanding of Confucian teaching.

Fifth, the religious elements that Confucianism does contain are either not available to us since they began centuries before Confucius and have origins which are either historically unidentifiable, were developed long after its inception, or were incorporated from other religious movements, which we have already examined and rejected.

And lastly, along with a lack of historically identifiable origin and a lack of original religious content, Confucianism does not offer objective evidence to support its claims, but rather, like the other religious, which it borrows from, relies upon subjective experience and the presupposed allegiance to existing societal traditions.

"Confucianism - Confucius' life as a student and teacher exemplified his idea that education was a ceaseless process of self-realization." - Britannica.com

"Confucianism - During the Ming dynasty, the idealist school of Wang Yang-ming (1472-1529) stressed meditation and intuitive knowledge." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

Having completed our study of Confucianism and found no reason to accept its religious views as accurate, we will now proceed with our examination of Propositional religions by taking a look at Sikhism.


Related Images



Ancient Mesopotamian Timeline & Figures Chart




World Religions
Origins Chart