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Basic Worldview:
103 Science, the Bible,
and Creation



Origins - Section Four:
Global Flood Evidence


Origins - Section One: Introduction and the Basics
Origins - Section Two: Premature Dismissals
Origins - Section Two: Application of the Basics
Origins - Section Three: Creation
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Origin of Life
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Environment for Life 1
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Environment for Life 2
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Another Planet
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Origin of Species
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Speciation Factors
Origins - Section Three: Evolution, Speciation Rates
Origins - Section Four: Time and Age, Redshift
Origins - Section Four: Philosophical Preference
Origins - Section Four: Cosmological Model 1
Origins - Section Four: Cosmological Model 2
Origins - Section Four: Dating Methods, Perceptions, Basics
Origins - Section Four: Global Flood Evidence
Origins - Section Four: Relative Dating
Origins - Section Four: Dating and Circular Reasoning
Origins - Section Four: The Geologic Column
Origins - Section Four: Radiometric Dating Basics
Origins - Section Four: General Radiometric Problems
Origins - Section Four: Carbon-14 Problems
Origins - Section Four: Remaining Methods and Decay Rates
Origins - Section Four: Radiometric Conclusions, Other Methods
Origins - Section Five: Overall Conclusions, Closing Editorial
Origins - Section Five: List of Evidences Table
Origins Debate Figures and Illustrations


Focus on Critical Evidence: Evidence for a Global Flood

In our previous segment, we established from secular and evolutionary sources that the catastrophism view of geologic history is undeniable and actually affirmed by the alternative uniformitarian view. With catastrophism as acknowledged fact even within the uniformitarian view, the historical accounts of a catastrophic worldwide flood become extremely relevant.

As an introductory note, it must be stated that Judeo-Christian tradition teaches the Flood was global, not regional or even almost global. We wholly agree with that conclusion. However, in order to facilitate considering the question of a massive flood without first accepting the Biblical account wholesale, the term “nearly-global” flood is also used below.

When considering the evidence for a global or near-global flood, the following key questions are extremely important. Why isn’t a global or near-global flood accepted within uniformitarian geology? Is a global Flood with a mass extinction incompatible and unacceptable within uniformitarian geologic principles? Does accepting a global Flood require accepting or believing in God? Is there simply no evidence or not enough evidence to support or suggest a global or near global Flood? Now we will take a closer look at answering these questions.

First, is a global Flood with a mass extinction incompatible and unacceptable within uniformitarian geologic principles? The answer here is a clear, “no.” A global or near-global flood with a mass extinction is not incompatible or unacceptable within uniformitarian principles. This fact is demonstrated by 3 cases of precedent for what is already accepted within uniformitarianism.

Number one, as we have seen in our previous segment, the role of major catastrophes in shaping geologic features is already accepted within uniformitarianism. Charles Lyell took an extreme position that made “no accommodation” for “past conditions or events, which do not have modern counterparts.” However, Lyell’s “extreme” position acknowledged a role for catastrophic events, only if they did not exceed what we see today.

Geochronology, Lyell's promulgation of uniformitarianismLyell, however, imposed some conditions on uniformitarianism that perhaps had not been intended by Hutton: he took a literal approach to interpreting the principle of uniformity in nature by assuming that all past events must have conformed to controls exerted by processes that behaved in the same manner as those processes behave today. No accommodation was made for past conditions that do not have modern counterparts. In short, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other violent geologic events may indeed have occurred earlier in Earth history but no more frequently nor with greater intensity than today; accordingly, the surface features of the Earth are altered very gradually by a series of small changes rather than by occasional cataclysmic phenomena. Lyell's contribution enabled the doctrine of uniformitarianism to finally hold sway, even though it did impose for the time being a somewhat limiting condition on the uniformity principle.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Modern uniformitarianism and modern geology rejects Lyell’s “extreme” position that violent geologic events (such as massive volcanic activity, asteroids and meteorites, and floods) only happened at their current rates and significance.

Continental landform, Historical survey, Landform theories of the 18th and 19th centuries, Gradualism – Lyell's almost total rejection of any geologic process that was abrupt and suggestive of catastrophe, however, was in itself an extreme posture. Research has shown that both gradual and rapid changes occur.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Continental landform, Landform theories of the 18th and 19th centuries, Catastrophism – During the late 18th and early 19th century, the leading proponent of this view was the German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner. According to Werner, all of the Earth's rocks were formed by rapid chemical precipitation from a “world ocean,” which he then summarily disposed of in catastrophic fashion. Though not directed toward the genesis of landforms in any coherent fashion, his catastrophic philosophy of changes of the Earth had two major consequences of geomorphic significance. First, it indirectly led to the formulation of an opposing, less extreme view by the Scottish scientist James Hutton in 1785. Second, it was in some measure correct: catastrophes do occur on the Earth and they do change its landforms. Asteroid impacts, Krakatoa-type volcanic explosions, hurricanes, floods, and tectonic erosion of mountain systems all occur, may be catastrophic, and can create and destroy landforms. Yet, not all change is catastrophic.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Notice from the last quote above that catastrophic floods are listed side by side with such massive events as Asteroid impacts and “Krakatoa-type volcanic explosions.” As a side note, to provide some idea of the scale indicated by the phrase “Krakatoa-type,” the quote below states that Krakatoa is regarded as “one of the most catastrophic in history.”

“Krakatoa – Bahasa Indonesia Krakatau volcano on Pulau (island) Rakata in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia. Its eruption in 1883 was one of the most catastrophic in history.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Consequently, uniformitarianism not only can but does accept the role of catastrophic volcanic activity, asteroids and meteorites, hurricanes, and floods. So, there is nothing within uniformitarianism that prevents the acceptance of a global or near-global flood.

Geology, II GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY, C UniformitarianismUniformitarianism contrasts with, for example, the idea that past events such as floods or earthquakes were caused by divine intervention or supernatural causes. Catastrophism, which calls on major catastrophes to explain earth's history, is also sometimes contrasted with uniformitarianism. However, uniformitarianism can include past catastrophes.” – "Geology," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Number two, the occurrence of major extinction events caused by huge catastrophes is already accepted within uniformitarianism. The quotes below, which we have seen before, establish that there have been numerous major extinction events in the uniformitarian, evolutionary view and that the dominant theories for these extinction events have asserted catastrophes such as major volcanic activity and a major asteroid impact as the causes.

Geologic Time, I INTRODUCTIONMost boundaries in recent geologic time coincide with periodic extinctions and appearances of new species…II DIVISION OF TIME – An explosion of invertebrate life marks the end of the Proterozoic and the beginning of the Phanerozoic. The Phanerozoic Eon started 570 million years before present and continues into the present…The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into the Paleozoic (570 million to 245 million years before present), Mesozoic (245 million to 65 million years before present), and Cenozoic (65 million years before present to present) Eras. The Paleozoic Era is divided into six periods. From oldest to youngest they are the Cambrian (570 million to 500 million years before present), Ordovician (500 million to 435 million years before present), Silurian (435 million to 410 million years before present), Devonian (410 million to 380 million years before present), Carboniferous (380 million to 290 million years before present), and Permian (290 million to 240 million years before present). The Paleozoic began with the appearance of many different life-forms, which are preserved as abundant fossils in rock sequences all over the world. It ended with the extinction of over 90 percent of all living organisms at the end of the Permian Period. The cause of this event is currently unknown…The Mesozoic began with the appearance of many new kinds of animals, including the dinosaurs and the ammonites, or extinct relatives of modern squid. The Mesozoic ended with another major extinction in which about 80 percent of all living organisms died. This extinction may have been the result of a large asteroid that crashed into the earth on the present-day northern Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico.” – "Geologic Time," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Dinosaurs, The search for dinosaurs, The K–T boundary event – It was not only the dinosaurs that disappeared 65 million years ago at the Cretaceous–Tertiary, or K–T, boundary. Many other organisms became extinct or were greatly reduced in abundance and diversity, and the extinctions were quite different between, and even among, marine and terrestrial organisms…Whatever factors caused it, there was undeniably a major, worldwide biotic change near the end of the CretaceousThe asteroid theory – The discovery of an abnormally high concentration of the rare metal iridium at, or very close to, the K–T boundary provides what has been recognized as one of those rare instantaneous geologic time markers that seem to be worldwide…The asteroid theory is widely accepted as the most probable explanation of the K–T iridium anomaly, but it does not appear to account for all the paleontological data…It is entirely possible that a culmination of ordinary biological changes and some catastrophic events, including increased volcanic activity, took place around the end of the Cretaceous.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Earth, History of Earth – Several times in Earth's history, there have been great extinctions, periods when many of Earth's living things die out. The greatest of these events, called the Permian extinction, happened about 250 million years ago. Almost 90 percent of the species on Earth during the Permian became extinct in a relatively short time. The cause of this event is a mystery, though many scientists suspect that huge volcanic eruptions in what is now Siberia may have disturbed the climate, causing many organisms to die out.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Consequently, since floods are listed as catastrophes acknowledged by uniformitarianism and major catastrophes are also acknowledged as the cause of major extinction events within uniformitarianism, there is nothing in principle that prevents uniformitarianism from accepting a global or near-global flood and an accompanying mass extinction event.

Number three, uniformitarianism already accepts that the world was at times nearly and even completely covered by ice, which is simply frozen water. Occasions when the entire earth was covered by ice are referred to as “the snowball earth.”

Earth [planet], Earth's changing climate, The ice ages – Throughout the history of Earth, the climate has changed many times. Between 800 million and 600 million years ago, during a time called the Precambrian, Earth experienced several extreme climate changes called ice ages or glacial epochs. The climate grew so cold that some scientists believe Earth nearly or completely froze several times. The theory that the entire Earth froze is sometimes called the snowball Earth. Geologists estimate that Earth experienced up to four such periods of alternate freezing and thawing.” –  Worldbook, Contributor: Steven I. Dutch, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.

In conformity to the uniformitarian principle in which feature-forming processes are regular and normative, these ice ages are made cyclical or recurring, as indicated by both the quote above and the quotes below. Essentially repetition is thought to be more in line with uniformity than unique catastrophe is. 

Fossil, III WHERE FOSSILS FORMThe global climate has also changed over geological time, alternating between periods of warmth and ice ages.” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

"Atmosphere, Development of the Earth's atmosphere, Sequence of events in the development of the atmosphere, Variation in abundance of carbon dioxide – The approximately hundredfold decline of atmospheric CO2 abundances from 3,500,000,000 years ago to the present has apparently not been monotonous. During that interval, numerous ice ages have come and gone.”– Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

It should also be stated that geologists and evolutionists alike have accepted the occurrence of global and near-global ice ages even though the cause of the ice ages remains unknown. Consequently, it would not be necessary for uniformitarians, geologists, or evolutionists to identify an exact cause for a global or near-global flood in order to accept it.

Earth [planet], Earth's changing climate, Why ice ages occurScientists do not fully understand why Earth has ice ages.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Steven I. Dutch, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Natural and

In summary, we find that uniformitarianism accepts and asserts the following concepts. Major catastrophes, including floods comparable to asteroid impacts and Krakatoa-type volcanic eruptions are accepted within uniformitarianism. Major extinction events, which result from such catastrophes and in which 80 to 90 percent of the species on earth were wiped out is accepted within uniformitarianism. Ice ages, in which a great deal of the entire earth or even all of the earth to the equator is covered with ice, are accepted within uniformitarianism (even as occurring more than once throughout history) and even though the cause of such ice ages is not fully understood.

It should be stated that the creationist view holds that the global flood was a singular historical event rather than a cyclical or recurring phenomenon. However, the idea that the world was entirely or nearly covered with water, resulting in a mass extinction, is not incompatible with uniformitarianism, particularly if such floods were viewed as cyclical or recurring. Therefore, a global or nearly global Flood is compatible with the uniformitarian view of earth history. Thus, in terms of geologic principles, there are no grounds for uniformitarians, geologists, or evolutionists to have to reject a global or nearly-global flood out of hand.

So, if there is no geologic principle for rejecting a global or near-global flood, what reason is there to reject such a flood? In the continuing effort to answer this, we move to our next question.

Second, does accepting a global Flood require accepting or believing in God? What this question addresses is that, even if there are no geologic principles requiring a global flood to be rejected, perhaps a global flood is rejected on philosophical grounds because it requires presuming the existence of a God. In other words, maybe a global flood or near-global flood is rejected because such an event could not occur unless one first accepts the reality of divine beings.

However, this is not true either. Accepting a global flood simply does not require accepting the existence of divine beings.

As we covered earlier in this article series, in the evolutionist, naturalistic, and atheistic worldviews, religion is believed to have originated as a way of explaining “natural events, such as storms and earthquakes” by regarding such events as the will of deities.

MythologyLater in the 19th century the theory of evolution put forward by English naturalist Charles Darwin heavily influenced the study of mythology. Scholars excavated the history of mythology, much as they would excavate fossil-bearing geological formations, for relics from the distant past. This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor. In Primitive Culture (1871), Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages. Similarly, British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a three-stage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough (3rd edition, 1912-1915). According to Frazer's scheme, human beings first attributed natural phenomena to arbitrary supernatural forces (magic), later explaining them as the will of the gods (religion), and finally subjecting them to rational investigation (science).” – "Mythology," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Religion, The origin of religionThe earliest recorded evidence of religious activity dates from only about 60,000 B.C. However, anthropologists and historians of religion believe that some form of religion has been practiced since people first appeared on the earth about 2 million years ago. Experts think prehistoric religions arose out of fear and wonder about natural events, such as the occurrence of storms and earthquakes and the birth of babies and animals. To explain why someone died, people credited supernatural powers greater than themselves or greater than the world around themLeading theories were developed by Edward Burnett Tylor, Friedrich Max Muller, and Rudolf Otto.” – World Book 2005

There are numerous examples from historic cultures where the natural phenomena and natural catastrophes are attributed to deities. Thunder was attributed to thunder gods.

Germanic religion and mythology, Mythology, The gods, Thor – Thor is a god of very different stamp. Place-names, personal names, poetry, and prose show that he was worshiped widely, especially toward the end of the pagan period. Thor is described as Odin's son, but his name derives from the Germanic term for “thunder.” Like Indra and other Indo-European thunder-gods, he is essentially the champion of the gods, being constantly involved in struggles with the giants.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Indra – chief of the Vedic gods of India. A warlike, typically Aryan god, he conquered innumerable human and demon enemies, vanquished the sun, and killed the dragon Vṛtra, who had prevented the monsoon from breaking. His weapons are lightning and the thunderbolt, and he is strengthened for these feats by drinks of the elixir soma, the offering of the sacrifice.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Additional “thunder gods” are also listed in the following quotes where we see that storms were also attributed to storm gods.

Hadad – Ha’dad, Haddad (Phoenician, Semite, Syrian), Also known as: Adad, Addu, Aleyn-Baal, Baal, Martu (Amorite), Rimmon. Storm God. Originally, Hadad was a Syrian deity but in cuneiform text he was called Addu, who as a chief deity. Later, he was known as Rimmon, a thunder god of air and storm…Hadad resembled Reseph in his thunder god guise. Some say he is identical with Balmarcodes. See also Adad (A); Aleyn-Baal; Baal; Shaushka. – Haddad (Babylon) see Adad; Hadad.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 200-201

Tlaloc – (Aztec People, Mexico), Also known as: Atonatiuh, Chac (Mayan), Cocijo (Zapotec), Dzaui (Mixtec), Muye (Otomi), Nahualpilli, Tohil (Quiche of Guatemala). Tlaloc is the god of thunder, rain, moisture, and mountains…The rain gods known as the Tlalocs are his children.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 469

 Pillan – Pilan (Araucanian People, Chile, South America), Weather god. Thunder god. After death, tribal chiefs, assuming the form of volcanoes, were met by Pillan. Pillan’s activities cause lightning and earthquakes.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 384

HawaiianThe Hawaiians held a vague belief in a future existence. They had four principal gods—Kane, Kanaloa, Ku, and Lono—and innumerable lesser gods and tutelary deities.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

 Lono – (Polynesia, Hawaii), God of thunder, rain and darkness. God of fertility. God of agriculture. God of singing (in the Marquesas). One of the traid with Kane and Ku. He is associated with cloud signs and the phenomena of storms.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 294

Syrian and Palestinian religion, Gods, mythology, and worldview, Other early gods – At 3rd-millennium Ebla the most important god was Dagan, “Lord of Gods” and “Lord of the Land.” Other gods of Ebla included El, Resheph, the storm god, Ishtar, Athtart, Chemosh, and the sun goddess…Little is known of the religion of the Hurrians beyond the names and general character of their chief gods: Teshub, a storm god, and his consort Hepat; their son, Sharruma, also a storm god; the goddess Shaushka, identified with the Mesopotamian Ishtar; and Kushukh and Shimegi, lunar and solar deities, respectively. Hurrian mythology is known only through Hittite versions. King Idrimi of Alalakh designates himself ‘servant of the storm god; of Hepat; and of Ishtar, the Lady of Alalakh, my lady.’…Developments in the 1st millennium BC – The storm god, Hadad, appears as the chief god of the Aramaeans in northern Syria in the 9th and 8th centuries. – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

IndraAmong his allies are the Rudras (or Maruts), who ride the clouds and direct storms…” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Cizin – One aspect of the dualistic nature of the Mayan religion is symbolically portrayed in the existing codices, which show Cizin uprooting or destroying trees planted by Chac, the rain god.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Chac – Chaac (Maya People, Yucatan), Also known as: “B” (possibly) Xib Chac. Rain god. Patron of agriculture. Chac is analogous to the Aztec god Tlaloc. The Mayas sacrificed to Chac for rain.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 120

Volcanic eruptions and volcanic activity were attributed to volcano gods.

VolcanoPeople have always been both fascinated by the spectacle of volcanic eruptions and terrified of their power. Eruptions have caused some of the worst disasters in history, wiping out entire towns and killing thousands of people. In early times, volcanoes played a role in the religious life of some peoples. The word volcano, for example, comes from Vulcan, the name the ancient Romans gave to their god of fire. The Romans believed the god lived beneath a volcanic island off the Italian coast. They called the island Vulcano.” – Contributor: David I. Kertzer, Ph.D., Paul Dupee University Professor of Social Science and Professor of Anthropology and Italian Studies, Brown University.

Vulcanin Roman religion, god of fire, particularly in its destructive aspects as volcanoes or conflagrations. Poetically, he is given all the attributes of the Greek Hephaestus (q.v.). His worship was very ancient, and at Rome he had his own priest (flamen). His chief festival, the Volcanalia, was held on August 23 and was marked by a rite of unknown significance: the heads of Roman families threw small fish into the fire.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Vulcano Island – southernmost island of the Lipari Islands (Isole Eolie), in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off northern Sicily, in Italy. Vulcano Island contains several volcanoes, including Gran Cratere, or Fossa Vecchio, which is still active…According to classical mythology, the forges of Vulcan, the god of fire, were on one of these volcanoes.” – "Vulcano Island," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Vulcan – (Latin Volcanus), in Roman mythology, the god of fire. Originally an old Italian deity who seems to have been associated with volcanic fire, Vulcan was identified with the Greek god Hephaestus in classical times. At Rome his festival, the Volcanalia, was celebrated on August 23. He was particularly revered at Ostia, where his was the principal cult.” – "Vulcan," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Vulcan – Vulcan was originally a god of fire, especially fire as a destructive force. The English word volcano comes from the Italian form of Vulcan's name. Vulcan came to be identified with the Greek god Hephaestus and thus became associated with metalworking and craftwork.” – Contributor: Daniel P. Harmon, Ph.D., Professor and Chairman, Department of Classics, University of Washington.

HephaestusAs god of fire, Hephaestus became the divine smith and patron of craftsmen; the natural volcanic or gaseous fires already connected with him were often considered to be his workshops…His Roman counterpart was Vulcan.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Hephaestusin Greek mythology, god of fire and metalwork, the son of the god Zeus and the goddess Hera, or sometimes the son of Hera alone…His workshop was believed to lie under Mount Etna, a volcano in Sicily. Hephaestus is often identified with the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.” – "Hephaestus," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Hephaestus – was the blacksmith of the gods in Greek mythology…The Greeks associated Hephaestus with volcanic areas, especially the island of Limnos (also spelled Lemnos).” – Worldbook, Contributor: F. Carter Philips, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Classics, Vanderbilt University.

Pillan – Pilan (Araucanian People, Chile, South America), Weather god. Thunder god. After death, tribal chiefs, assuming the form of volcanoes, were met by Pillan. Pillan’s activities cause lightning and earthquakes.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 384

Fuji, Mount – Japanese Fuji-san, also called Fujiyama, or Fuji No Yama, highest mountain in Japan, rising to 12,388 feet (3,776 m) near the Pacific coast in Yamanashi and Shizuoka ken (prefectures), central Honshu, about 60 miles (100 km) west of Tokyo. It is a volcano that has been dormant since its last eruption in 1707 but is still generally classified as active by geologists. The mountain's name, of Ainu origin, means “everlasting life.” Mount Fuji, with its graceful conical form, has become famous throughout the world and is considered the sacred symbol of Japan. Among Japanese there is a sense of personal identification with the mountain, and thousands of Japanese climb to the shrine on its peak every summer.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Fuji – (Japan), Sun goddess. Mountain goddess. Fire goddess. Goddess of the hearth. In one legend Fuji is a female and Mt. Haku (a male) who stands higher…Fuji was probably a volcano goddess of Mount Fujiyamma.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 182

Kilauea – During the 19th century, the main floor of Kilauea's caldera went through several periods of lava filling and collapse. By 1919 it assumed its present depth of 500 feet (150 m). The floor, paved with recent lava flows, contains the Halemaumau (“Fern House”) Pit, an inner crater that is Kilauea's most active vent. Halemaumau is the legendary home of Pele, the Hawaiian fire goddess.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

HawaiiAmong the lava features associated with volcanic eruptions are Pele's hair and Pele's tears, which are named for the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes. Pele's hair is formed when small particles of molten material are thrown into the air and spun out by the wind into long hair-like strands. Pele's tears are formed when the particles fuse into tearlike drops of volcanic glass.” – "Hawaii (state)," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

As an interesting side point, notice that the eruptions of Pele, the goddess inhabiting the Kilauea volcano, is attributed in two different ways to a flood. Even in this aspect, the correlation of massive volcanic activity and the Biblical global Flood are reflected. We will cover this issue in more detail later on.

Pele – (Hawaiian, Polynesian), Mother goddess. Fire Goddess. Goddess of the Kilauea volcano. Goddess of Dance. Pele, the goddess of the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii, erupts when she is angry…There are several versions of her arrival in Hawaii; she was expelled from her distant homeland; she was driven to the island by a flood; she was driven out of Kahiki (Tahiti) by her sister; she went in search of her brother Kamo-hoali’i: or that she simply loved to travel. It is said that she caused the flood when sea water poured from her head while searching for the husband who deserted her.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 377

Moving forward, we can also see that earthquakes were attributed to earthquake gods.

Nature worship, Heaven and earth as sacred spaces, forces, or processes, Earth, EarthquakesAccording to the beliefs of many peoples, earthquakes originate in mountains. In areas of Africa where the concept of mana is particularly strong, many believe that the dead in the underworld are the causes of earthquakes, though in the upper Nile basin of The Sudan and in East Africa an earth deity is sometimes blamed… Generators of earthquakes also may be the gods of the underworld, such as Tuil, the earthquake god of the inhabitants of the Kamchatka Peninsula, who rides on a sleigh under the earth.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Tuil – (Kamchatka Peninsula, Sibera), God of earthquakes. He rides his sleigh beneath the earth. Tuil can be convinced to go elsewhere with his sleigh by poking holes in the ground with a very sharp stick of the proper length.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 476

Nereid – in Greek religion, any of the daughters (numbering 50 or 100) of the sea god Nereus (eldest son of Pontus, a personification of the sea) and of Doris, daughter of Oceanus (the god of the water encircling the flat Earth)…the best known of the Nereids were Amphitrite, consort of Poseidon (a sea and earthquake god)…” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

“[CHART] GREEK NAME: Poseidon, ROMAN NAME: Neptune, ROLE IN MYTHOLOGY: God of the sea and earthquakes.” – "Ancient Roman and Greek Gods," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Poseidonwas the Greek god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Nancy Felson, Ph.D., Professor of Classics, University of Georgia.

Cizin – also spelled Kisin (Mayan: “Stinking One”), Mayan earthquake god and god of death, ruler of the subterranean land of the dead.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Pillan – Pilan (Araucanian People, Chile, South America), Weather god. Thunder god. After death, tribal chiefs, assuming the form of volcanoes, were met by Pillan. Pillan’s activities cause lightning and earthquakes.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 384

Poseidon – (Greek; possibly Indo-European origin), Poseidon is the Greek god of the sea. God of rivers (in Thessaly). Patron of horse racing. One of the twelve great Olympians. Poseidon is the son of Cronos and Rhea, brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera and Hestia…He is usually depicted seated in a chariot as he is drawn across the sea by horses, holding a trident in his hand (used for creating earthquakes).” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 387-388

And eclipses were attributed to gods as well.

Nature worship, Celestial phenomena as objects of worship or veneration, Eclipses of the sun and moon – An eclipse of the sun or moon—usually interpreted as a battle between the two heavenly bodies or as the dying or the devouring of one of the two—in many religions is met with anxiety, shouting, drum beating, shooting, and other noises. Many Native Americans, the Khoisan in Africa, the Ainu in Japan, and the Minangkabau in Sumatra interpret the eclipse as the fainting, sickness, or death of the darkened heavenly body. In Arctic North America, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit believe that the sun and moon have moved from their places in order to see that things are going right on earth. The explanation that heavenly monsters and beasts pursue the stars and attempt to injure and to kill them, however, is a view found over a larger area. Noise and shooting are believed to deter the monsters from their pursuit or to force them to return the celestial bodies if they have already been captured. In parts of China and in Thailand the monster is the heavenly dragon; in other Chinese regions and among the Germanic tribes and northern American Indians the culprits are dogs and wolves (coyotes); in Africa and Indonesia they are snakes; in India they are the star monsters Rahu and Ketu; and in South America the beast is the jaguar. The belief in the darkening of one star by the other in a battle—e.g., between the sun god Lisa and the moon goddess Gleti in Benin—is about as widespread. An eclipse may also be interpreted (as in Tahiti) as the lovemaking of sun and moon, who thus beget the stars and obscure each other in the process.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Rahu – Bhangi (Cambodia; Hindu; India), Originally a Daitya, this monster demon, know as “The Grasper,” causes eclipses by eating the sun.” – Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Patricia Turner & Charles Russell Coulter, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, Copyright 2000, p. 397

In summary, the point here is very simple. In all of these cases, evolutionists, uniformitarians, atheists, and naturalists alike accept that ancient peoples did indeed experience such natural events. They simply reject the supernatural cause that these people ascribe to these events. Accepting that such events occurred does not require belief in divine beings or require accepting ancient people’s explanation that the cause was divine.

Consequently, accepting major catastrophes, accepting major extinction events caused by catastrophes, and even accepting that the earth was covered with ice does not require belief in the existence of divine beings. Nor does accepting the occurrence of a global flood, on its own, require belief in the existence of divine beings. Uniformitarians, evolutionists, atheists, and naturalists could very well accept the occurrence of the natural event itself while rejecting the attribution of that event to a deity as a mere “primitive” explanation, just as they do wholesale all the time. Their underlying, foundational philosophies simply do not prevent accepting a global or near-global flood. As such, a global or nearly global Flood is compatible with atheistic and even evolutionary views about religion and there is no philosophical reason to reject a global or near-global flood out of hand.

So, if there is no geologic principle and no philosophical reason to reject a global or near-global flood, why is such a flood rejected? This leads us to our next question.

Third, is there simply no evidence or not enough evidence to support or suggest a global or near global Flood? Since the Flood cannot be rejected on the grounds that it is compatible with both evolutionary, atheistic, and uniformitarian views, maybe it is rejected because there is simply no evidence for it. But this is simply not the case either. There are 2 strong lines of evidence that here was a global or near-global flood, the historical record and geological evidence.

In light of the fact that evolutionist and uniformitarians do not reject other natural phenomena described in “primitive” cultures as the work of deities, the question arises as to why, with so much testimony from cultures all around the world, a global-flood is rejected out of hand? With no geologic principles or philosophical grounds for rejecting a flood, why not simply accept the widespread testimony for such a flood? Why ignore the historic testimony of people who were there when there is no principle that prevents doing so?

The simple fact is that the event of a global or near-global flood is dramatically attested to by cultures from all around the world, as the quotes below will indicate. And it is also important to state, as noted in some of the quotes below, that these tales of a global flood from other cultures are not derived from the Biblical texts but appear to be independent traditions that predate the writing of the book of Genesis. Furthermore, the fact that the cultures reporting this massive flood are distributed all around the known world rules out the possibility of only a local flood limited to one particular region or portion of a continent. Moreover, the Old Testament Jewish account, the Mesopotamian Atrahasis, the Sumerian Ziusudra, the Greek Deucalion, the Armenian legend, and the Hawaiian legend all specifically include that the survivors were warned in advance by the gods to build a boat to escape the flood. This also indicates that the flood was not merely local or regional because, if that was the case, then gods could have warned the survivors to leave in advance and escape over land. What is essential here is that these points prove that the cultures telling the legends understood the flood to be global, not merely local or regional and they reported the stories as global floods. To reinterpret them in modern times to mere “regional tales” of “local floods” is not accurate to the legends themselves.

In Mesopotamia, we find more than one legend of a massive global flood. The first, and probably most famous, is the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Noah – also spelled Noe, the hero of the biblical Flood story in the Old Testament book of Genesis, the originator of vineyard cultivation, and, as the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the representative head of a Semitic genealogical line…The story of the Flood has close affinities with Babylonian traditions of apocalyptic floods in which Utnapishtim plays the part corresponding to that of Noah. These mythologies are the source of such features of the biblical Flood story as the building and provisioning of the ark, its flotation, and the subsidence of the waters, as well as the part played by the human protagonist. Tablet XI of the Gilgamesh epic introduces Utnapishtim, who, like Noah, survived cosmic destruction by heeding divine instruction to build an ark…Despite the tangible similarities of the Mesopotamian and biblical myths of the flood, the biblical story has a unique Hebraic perspective.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

GilgameshThe fullest extant text of the Gilgamesh epic is on 12 incomplete Akkadian-language tablets found at Nineveh in the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (reigned 668–627 BC). The gaps that occur in the tablets have been partly filled by various fragments found elsewhere in Mesopotamia and Anatolia. In addition, five short poems in the Sumerian language are known from tablets that were written during the first half of the 2nd millennium BC…The Gilgamesh of the poems and of the epic tablets was probably the Gilgamesh who ruled at Uruk in southern Mesopotamia sometime during the first half of the 3rd millennium BC and who was thus a contemporary of Agga, ruler of Kish; Gilgamesh of Uruk was also mentioned in the Sumerian list of kings as reigning after the Flood…Afterward, Gilgamesh made a dangerous journey (Tablets IX and X) in search of Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Babylonian Flood, in order to learn from him how to escape death. He finally reached Utnapishtim, who told him the story of the Flood and showed him where to find a plant that would renew youth (Tablet XI). But after Gilgamesh obtained the plant, it was seized by a serpent, and Gilgamesh unhappily returned to Uruk.– Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Middle Eastern religion, Middle Eastern worldviews and basic religious thought, Views of man and society – In the ancient Middle Eastern worldview, gods could become mortal, and men could become gods. Utnapishtim, the hero of the Babylonian Flood storyAfter the Flood the biblical Noah won God's goodwill, for “the Lord smelled the pleasing odor” (Genesis 8:21) of the tasty flesh and fowl offered up to him. Noah was following a long tradition, for Utnapishtim (Gilgamesh epic 11:155–161) had, after the Flood, offered sacrifices and libations to the gods who “crowded like flies” as they “smelled the sweet savor.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Mesopotamian religion, The literary legacy: myth and epic, Akkadian literature

Epics – The Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh seems to have been composed in Old Babylonian times but was reworked by a certain Sin-leqe-unnini later in the 1st millennium BCAfter many adventures he reaches his ancestor Utnapishtim, to whom the gods have granted eternal life, but his case proves to be a unique one and so of no help to Gilgamesh. Utnapishtim was rewarded for having saved human and animal life at the time of the great Flood. Eventually, just as Gilgamesh is ready to return home, he is told about a plant that rejuvenates and transforms old people into children. Gilgamesh finds it and begins his return journey. But, as the day is warm, when he passes an inviting pool he leaves his clothes and the plant on the shore and goes in for a swim. A serpent smells the plant, comes out of its hole, and eats it.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

DelugeStories about great floods occur in the religious tradition of many peoples. A famous account is found in the Epic of Gilgamesh from Mesopotamia. Many scholars believe the Mesopotamian and Biblical accounts are related.” – Contributor: H. Darrell Lance, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Old Testament Interpretation, Colgate Rochester/Bexley/Crozer Theological Seminary.

Gilgamesh Epic – an important Middle Eastern literary work, written in cuneiform on 12 clay tablets about 2000BCAfter Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh seeks out the wise man Utnapishtim to learn the secret of immortality. The sage recounts to Gilgamesh a story of a great flood (the details of which are so remarkably similar to later biblical accounts of the flood that scholars have taken great interest in this story). After much hesitation, Utnapishtim reveals to Gilgamesh that a plant bestowing eternal youth is in the sea. Gilgamesh dives into the water and finds the plant but later loses it to a serpent and, disconsolate, returns to Uruk to end his days.” – "Gilgamesh Epic," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The second Mesopotamian legend of a massive flood is the legend of Atrahasis.

Judaism, The Judaic tradition, Jewish myth and legend, Sources and development, Myth and legend in the Old Testament, MythsOld Testament myths are found mainly in the first 11 chapters of Genesis, the first book of the BibleThe basic stories are derived from the popular lore of the ancient Middle East and can be paralleled in the extant literature of the peoples of the areaAgain, the story of the Deluge, including the elements of the ark and the dispatch of the raven and dove, appears already in the Babylonian myths of Gilgamesh and Atrahasis.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Mesopotamian mythology – Other Mesopotamian myths include the story of Atrahasis, a wise man who was saved from the Flood after being warned by one of the gods to build a ship to save himself.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Mesopotamian religion, The literary legacy: myth and epic, Akkadian literature, Myths – Also important is an Old Babylonian ‘Myth of Atrahasis,’ which, in motif, shows a relationship with the account of the creation of man to relieve the gods of toil in the ‘Enki and Ninmah’ myth, and with a Sumerian account of the Flood in the ‘Eridu Genesis’…With this, however, Enlil's patience was at an end and he thought of the Flood as a means to get rid of humanity once and for all. Enki, however, warned Atrahasis and had him build a boat in which he saved himself, his family, and all animals. After the Flood had abated and the ship was grounded, Atrahasis sacrificed, and the hungry gods, much chastened, gathered around the offering…The myth uses the motif of the protest of the gods against their hard toil and the creation of humans to relieve it, which was depicted earlier in the Sumerian myth of “Enki and Ninmah,” and also the motif of the Flood, which occurred in the ‘Eridu Genesis.’” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

The Sumerians also had a flood legend involving a hero named Ziusudra.

ShuruppakShuruppak was celebrated in Sumerian legend as the scene of the Deluge, which destroyed all humanity except one survivor, Ziusudra. He had been commanded by a protecting god to build an ark, in which he rode out the disaster, afterward re-creating man and living things upon the earth, and was himself endowed with eternal life. Ziusudra corresponds with Utnapishtim in the Gilgamesh epic and with the biblical Noah.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Armenia also has a flood legend. Notice from the last line of the quote that all of the “first race of humans” is reported to have been destroyed by this flood, which indicates the flood was global, not limited to merely one local group.

Ararat, MountArarat traditionally is associated with the mountain on which Noah's Ark came to rest at the end of the Flood…Ararat is sacred to the Armenians, who believe themselves to be the first race of humans to appear in the world after the Deluge.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Phrygia in Asia Minor also has a flood legend. Notice once again that the flood is reported to have “destroyed humanity,” which indicates that the flood was global and not limited to one population.

KonyaKonya is one of the oldest urban centres in the world; excavations in Alâeddin Hill in the middle of the city indicate settlement dating from at least the 3rd millennium BC. According to a Phrygian legend of the great flood, Konya was the first city to rise after the deluge that destroyed humanity.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Phrygiaancient district in west-central Anatolia, named after a people whom the Greeks called Phryges and who dominated Asia Minor between the Hittite collapse (12th century BC) and the Lydian ascendancy (7th century BC). The Phrygians, perhaps of Thracian origin, settled in northwestern Anatolia late in the 2nd millennium…This early civilization borrowed heavily from the Hittites, whom they had replaced, and established a system of roads later utilized by the Persians. About 730 the Assyrians detached the eastern part of the confederation, and the locus of power shifted to Phrygia proper under the rule of the legendary king Midas.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Greece also has a flood legend. And in the Greek version, “the human race” is destroyed, indicating that the phenomenon was not limited to just a local population.

Lycaon – in Greek mythology, a legendary king of Arcadia. Traditionally, he was an impious and cruel king who tried to trick Zeus, the king of the gods, into eating human flesh. The god was not deceived and in wrath caused a deluge to devastate the earth.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Deucalionin Greek mythology, son of the Titan Prometheus. Deucalion was king of Phthia in Thessaly (Thessalia) when the god Zeus, because of the wicked ways of the human race, destroyed them by flood. For nine days and nights Zeus sent torrents of rain. Only Deucalion and his wife, Pyrrha, survived drowning. They were saved because they were the only people who had led good lives and remained faithful to the laws of the gods. Having been warned by his father, Prometheus, of the approaching disaster, Deucalion built a boat, which carried him and Pyrrha safely to rest atop Mount Parnassus. The oracle at Delphia commanded them to cast the bones of their mother over their shoulders. Understanding this to mean the stones of the earth, they obeyed, and from the stones sprang a new race of people.” – "Deucalion," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Deucalionwas the "Noah" of Greek mythology. He was the son of Prometheus, who was a member of the earliest race of gods, called Titans. When Zeus decided to destroy all human beings by a flood because of their wickedness, Prometheus warned Deucalion and Deucalion's wife, Pyrrha. He told them to build a wooden ark. They floated in this ark for nine days until they landed on the top of Mount Parnassus. When the water went down, they were the only living creatures left on the earth…Deucalion and Pyrrha became the ancestors of the Greeks through their son Hellen, for whom the Hellenes (Greeks) were named.” – Contributor: William F. Hansen, Ph.D., Professor of Classical Studies and Folklore, Indiana University.

Moving farther away, China also has a legend of a massive flood. Notice that Chinese history begins with their civilization starting after a massive flood.

Ta Yu – Pinyin Da Yu (Chinese: “Yü the Great”), in Chinese mythology, the Tamer of the Flood, one of China's saviour-heroes and reputed founder of China's oldest dynasty, the Hsia. One legend among many recounts Ta Yü's extraordinary birth: a man called Kun was given charge of controlling a great deluge.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

The Chinese have a story…it’s one of the oldest stories in the world. It says the father of their civilization is a guy named Fuhi. The story says that Fuhi, his wife, three sons and three daughters escaped a great flood. After the flood, they were the only people alive on earth and they repopulated the world.” – “Dinosaurs and the Bible,” Dr. Kent E. Hovind, Creation Science Evangelism, Pensacola, FL, www.drdino.com, Windows Media Video, 15 minutes, 15 seconds

Even farther away, moving off of the Asian continent, we find flood legends in North, Central, and South America. Notice from the Central and South American legends in particular that all of the world and all of the previous population of mankind are destroyed, further indicating that the flood was experienced by all of humanity, not just regional groups.

IroquoisAn elaborate Iroquois cosmology was based on the myth of a woman who fell from the sky, and it featured deluge and earth-diver motifs. No other tribes showed such a preoccupation in their mythology with supernatural aggression and cruelty, sorcery, torture, and cannibalism.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Pre-Columbian civilizations, Meso-American civilization, Pre-Classic and Classic periods, Late Classic Lowland Maya (600–900), Classic Maya religion, Creation – The Maya, like other Middle American Indians, believed that several worlds had been successively created and destroyed before the present universe had come into being. The Dresden Codex holds that the end of a world will come about by deluge: although the evidence derived from Landa's Relación and from the Quiché Popol Vuh is not clear, it is likely that four worlds preceded the present one. People were made successively of earth (who, being mindless, were destroyed), then of wood (who, lacking souls and intelligence and being ungrateful to the gods, were punished by being drowned in a flood or devoured by demons), and finally of a corn gruel (the ancestors of the Maya).” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Pre-Columbian civilizations, Meso-American civilization, Aztec culture to the time of the Spanish conquest, Aztec religion, Cosmogony and eschatology – The Aztec believed that four worlds had existed before the present universe. Those worlds, or “suns,” had been destroyed by catastrophes. Humankind had been entirely wiped out at the end of each sun. The present world was the fifth sun, and the Aztec thought of themselves as ‘the People of the Sun.’…The fourth sun, Nahui-Atl, “Four-Water,” ended in a gigantic flood that lasted for 52 years. Only one man and one woman survived, sheltered in a huge cypress.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Arts, Native American, Literature, Oral literatures, North American cultures: Southwest, Eastern Woodlands, and Plains, PlainsThe last of the Plains tribes, the Comanche, believe that the Great Spirit created some people, but that there were white people existing before them. A flood washed these white people away, and they turned into white birds and flew away. A secondary spirit was then sent to create the Comanche.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Arts, Native American, Literature, Oral literatures, Middle American cultures – The Aztecs of the Toltec period had four mythological eras: those of (1) the Water Sun, which was destroyed by floodThe Inca civilization of Peru has been added to the higher cultures of Meso-America because it resembles them more closely than it does its neighbours, the simpler tribes of South America. As far back as mythological history can be traced, the Incas have worshiped Viracocha, the creator. He was the omnipotent being who took part in every mythological incident…In all of these myths the flood is present, which requires the recreation of man after each incident.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

The Toltec Indians in Mexico have a legend that says ‘the first world lasted 1716 years and was destroyed by a flood that covered the highest mountains.’ Only one family named Coxcox survived.” – “Dinosaurs and the Bible,” Dr. Kent E. Hovind, Creation Science Evangelism, Pensacola, FL, www.drdino.com, Windows Media Video, 15 minutes, 40 seconds

Even as far away as Hawaii, there are flood legends.

“The Hawaiian’s had a legend that said, “Long after the death of Kuniuhonna, the first man, the world became a wicked terrible place to live. There was one good man left; his name was Nu-u. He made a great canoe with a house on it and filled it with animals. The waters came up over all the earth and killed all the people. Only Nu-u and his family were saved.” – “Dinosaurs and the Bible,” Dr. Kent E. Hovind, Creation Science Evangelism, Pensacola, FL, www.drdino.com, Windows Media Video, 14 minutes, 40 seconds

In conclusion, the destruction of the world by a massive if not global flood is attested to by a variety of independent ancient sources around the world, as the following sources all summarize. Notice that the last quote below also includes the Japanese as having flood legends, which is a group that was not covered in the quotes above.

Today there are 270 surviving flood legendsin many cultures that have never heard of the Bible.” – “Dinosaurs and the Bible,” Dr. Kent E. Hovind, Creation Science Evangelism, Pensacola, FL, www.drdino.com, Windows Media Video, 14 minutes, 40 seconds

Religious mythsThe tale of man's creation and moral decline forms part of the myth of the Four Ages (see below Myths of the ages of the world). His subsequent destruction by flood and regeneration from stones is partly based on folktale.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Creation StoriesWhen the gods decide to destroy their human creations, they do so by sending a flood (see Ancient Middle Eastern Religions; Deluge).” – "Creation Stories," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Nature worship, Elements and forces of nature, Water, Water as primal matter – Myths of a great flood (the Deluge) are widespread over Eurasia and America. This flood, which destroys with a few exceptions a disobedient original population, is an expiation by the water, after which a new type of world is created.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

DelugeA number of ancient nations had folklore that predated the Bible and also made reference to the great flood. An example is the Gilgamesh Epic, an ancient Babylonian story dating from 2000BC and written on 12 cuneiform tablets. It concerns a ruler (Gilgamesh) who, after losing his dearest friend to a mysterious death, seeks out a wise man (Utnapishtim) who is a survivor of the great flood and knows the secret of immortality. Accounts such as this have intrigued biblical scholars because they lend further credence to the later biblical version. Although a number of these scholars have concluded that the biblical narrative is derived from the Babylonian story, it is possible that each was taken from a common earlier source, now lost. Events similar to those described in the biblical story occur also in Greek mythology (see Deucalion). Among other peoples whose folklore and legends contain accounts of a devastating deluge are those of southern Asia, the aborigines of North, Central, and South America, and the natives of Polynesia. The Chinese and Japanese have stories of floods, but these do not, as a rule, destroy the entire earth. Curiously, flood legends do not occur among the ancient inhabitants of the Nile Valley and are not common anywhere else in Africa or in Europe.” – "Deluge," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

As we can see, legends of a massive flood with only a few survivors after which human civilization was regenerated virtually from scratch exist all around the world from Mesopotamia to China and Japan to Hawaii to North, Central, and South America and back again to Greece, Phrygia, and Armenia, and Sumeria. (Even the well-known story of Atlantis includes the idea of a great civilation that was destroyed by water.) In terms of historical attestation, it’s hard to imagine what more we could possibly expect to find than this: the legend of such a massive, flood-based extinction event attested to independently by cultures spanning the globe from east to west. What we find is exactly what we would expect to find if such a flood did occur. Furthermore, the fact that such a flood-based extinction event is reported in cultures on every continent rules out the suggestion that the flood was merely on a smaller “local” or “regional” level.

And given that a global flood-based extinction event is not incompatible with uniformitarian principles (or even atheism and evolutionary views of religion), there is no grounds for rejecting worldwide historical testimony for such in favor of mere speculations and suppositions from eighteenth and nineteenth century persons, such as Hutton and Lyell, who lived almost 3,500 years after these events.

Hutton, James – born June 3, 1726, Edinburgh, Scotland, died March 26, 1797, Edinburgh…His chief contribution to scientific knowledge, the uniformitarian principle…Hutton claimed that the totality of these geologic processes could fully explain the current landforms all over the world, and no biblical explanations were necessary in this regard.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Lyell, Sir Charles – Building on the pioneering work of the 18th-century Scottish geologist James Hutton, Lyell developed the theory of uniformitarianismUniformitarianism contradicted the theory of catastrophism, which was popular among scientists of Lyell's time. Catastrophism claimed that only major catastrophes could change the basic formation of the earth, and that the earth was only about 6000 years old. Most scientists believed that catastrophism was consistent with the Bible's account of the earth's creation.” – "Lyell, Sir Charles," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

We can speculate all we want about events 3,500 years ago, but our remote speculation from such a great distance simply cannot overturn the weight of the worldwide record of history. When it comes to the record of history, all that we have is the ample evidence of a global or near-global flood from the historic record spanning from Mesopotamia to Greece, to China, and to the Americas and Hawaii. Thus, while we can derive any conclusion we want based upon speculation thousands of years after the fact, the only conclusion that can be derived from the evidence is that there was such a flood.

Consequently, since a global or near-global flood cannot be rejected due to geologic principles, philosophical preferences, or a lack of evidence in the historic record, perhaps the idea of a global or near-global flood is rejected on the grounds that it contradicts actual geologic evidence. However, this is not the case either. Not only is there no contradiction between the geologic evidence and the historical record, but the geologic evidence for a global flood is so massive that it almost dwarfs even the substantial evidence in the historic record.

Evidence from the geologic record can be placed into 4 categories: the evidence of rock layers themselves, the evidence from the mere existence of fossils, the evidence from the location of fossils, and the evidence for an extremely rapid climate change.

Concerning the evidence provided by rock layers themselves, the most obvious and significant fact is that sedimentary rock layers are laid down by water. And this is a fact agreed to by uniformitarian, evolutionary geology as indicated by the quotes below. Notice from the first quote that the alternate causes of wind or glacial ice are said to be “less frequent” than water, which is the predominant mechanism for laying down sedimentary rock. The second and third quotes below likewise attest that “Most sedimentary rock” is formed “when grains of clay, silt, or sand settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans.”

Sedimentary RockSedimentary Rock, in geology, rock composed of geologically reworked materials, formed by the accumulation and consolidation of mineral and particulate matter deposited by the action of water or, less frequently, wind or glacial ice…Sedimentary rocks are classified according to their manner of origin into mechanical or chemical sedimentary rocks. Mechanical rocks, or fragmental rocks, are composed of mineral particles produced by the mechanical disintegration of other rocks and transported, without chemical deterioration, by flowing water. They are carried into larger bodies of water, where they are deposited in layers. Shale, sandstone, and conglomerate are common sedimentary rocks of mechanical origin. The materials making up chemical sedimentary rocks may consist of the remains of microscopic marine organisms precipitated on the ocean floor, as in the case of limestone. They may also have been dissolved in water circulating through the parent rock formation and then deposited in a sea or lake by precipitation from the solution.” – "Sedimentary Rock," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sedimentary, rock – Sedimentary, rock  pronounced sehd uh MEHN tuhr ee, is rock formed when mineral matter or remains of plants and animals settle out of water or, less commonly, out of air or ice. Sedimentary rock covers about three-fourths of Earth's land area and most of the ocean floorMost sedimentary rock starts forming when grains of clay, silt, or sand settle in river valleys or on the bottoms of lakes and oceans. Year after year, these minerals collect and form broad, flat layers called beds or strata…Some sedimentary rock forms during the evaporation of water. For example, beds of rock salt were formed in bays cut off from the ocean or in saltwater lakes. As the trapped water evaporated, layers of salt crystals were left behind.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Maria Luisa Crawford, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Bryn Mawr College.

Sedimentary rock – rock formed at or near the Earth's surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal surface temperatures (chemical rock)…These processes produce soil, unconsolidated rock detritus, and components dissolved in groundwater and runoff. Any unconsolidated deposit of solid weathered material constitutes sediment. It can form as the result of deposition of grains from moving bodies of water or wind, from the melting of glacial ice, and from the downslope slumping (sliding) of rock and soil masses in response to gravity, as well as by precipitation of the dissolved products of weathering under the conditions of low temperature and pressure that prevail at or near the surface of the Earth.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Consequently, water is the predominant mechanism for laying down sedimentary rock. And, the uppermost portion of earth’s crust is almost entirely a covering of sedimentary rock.

Igneous rockThe Earth is composed predominantly of a large mass of igneous rock with a very thin veneer of weathered material—namely, sedimentary rock.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

"Dating, General considerations, Determination of sequence – Most methods for determining relative geologic ages are well illustrated in sedimentary rocks. These rocks cover roughly 75 percent of the surface area of the continents, and unconsolidated sediments blanket most of the ocean floor. They provide evidence of former surface conditions and the life-forms that existed under those conditions." – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Sedimentary rock – rock formed at or near the Earth's surface by the accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the precipitation from solution at normal surface temperatures (chemical rock). Sedimentary rocks are the most common rocks exposed on the Earth's surface but are only a minor constituent of the entire crust, which is dominated by igneous and metamorphic rocks…Sediments and sedimentary rocks are confined to the Earth's crust, which is the thin, light outer solid skin of the Earth ranging in thickness from 40–100 kilometres (25 to 62 miles) in the continental blocks to 4–10 kilometres in the ocean basins. Igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute thebulk of the crust. The total volume of sediment and sedimentary rocks can be either directly measured using exposed rock sequences, drill-hole data, and seismic profiles or indirectly estimated by comparing the chemistry of major sedimentary rock types to the overall chemistry of the crust from which they are weathered. Both methods indicate that the Earth's sediment-sedimentary rock shell forms only about 5 percent by volume of the terrestrial crust, which in turn accounts for less than 1 percent of the Earth's total volume. On the other hand, the area of outcrop and exposure of sediment and sedimentary rock comprises 75 percent of the land surface and well over 90 percent of the ocean basins and continental margins. In other words, 80–90 percent of the surface area of the Earth is mantled with sediment or sedimentary rocks rather than with igneous or metamorphic varieties. The sediment-sedimentary rock shell forms only a thin superficial layer. The mean shell thickness in continental areas is 1.8 kilometres; the sediment shell in the ocean basins is roughly 0.3 kilometre. Rearranging this shell as a globally encircling layer (and depending on the raw estimates incorporated into the model), the shell thickness would be roughly 1–3 kilometres. Despite the relatively insignificant volume of the sedimentary rock shell, not only are most rocks exposed at the terrestrial surface of the sedimentary variety, but many of the significant events in Earth history are most accurately dated and documented by analyzing and interpreting the sedimentary rock record instead of the more voluminous igneous and metamorphic rock record.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Sedimentary, rock – Sedimentary, rock  pronounced sehd uh MEHN tuhr ee, is rock formed when mineral matter or remains of plants and animals settle out of water or, less commonly, out of air or ice. Sedimentary rock covers about three-fourths of Earth's land area and most of the ocean floor.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Maria Luisa Crawford, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Bryn Mawr College.

Therefore, it is simply a matter of fact that almost all of the earth’s crust is covered by a thin layer of rock that was laid down by water. Rivers and lakes are smaller local phenomenon. Their ability to disperse sedimentary rock, although perhaps powerful (as in the case of the Mississippi Delta) is limited to particular locations. So, it is certainly possible that rivers and lakes contributed to isolated, local deposits. However, since nearly the entire surface of the earth is covered with sedimentary rock, there is no way for rivers and lakes to have been responsible for the majority of sedimentary rock layers. The only way for most of the earth’s surface to be covered with sedimentary rock layers is if all areas of the earth were at one time covered by ocean water. On this point, there are only 2 options. Either all portions of the earth’s surface were covered by ocean water at different times or all portions of the earth’s surface were covered by ocean waters at the same time.

Consequently, the fact that almost the entire surface of the earth is covered by rock that is predominantly laid down by water is certainly consistent with and suggestive of a global flood. Conversely, the fact that lakes or rivers could not have produced such a global “veneer” of sedimentary rock rules out the possibility that covering of sedimentary rock was formed through slow, gradual, uniform processes such as erosion in rivers or lakes, etc. Effectively, the sedimentary rock layers that cover the earth are evidence that massive amounts of water covered all the various portions of the earth at some time.

If all that we had was the worldwide independent testimonies of a global flood from the historic record and the coating of the earth with a form of rock that is predominantly laid down by water, we would be forced to conclude that the earth’s history contained at least one massive global or near-global flooding event. The only thing preventing this very rational and observationally unavoidable conclusion is some yet unidentified reason that is not part of geologic or general philosophical principles. It is hard to reject such an observationally-driven and well-evidenced conclusion based on merely an unknown, shadowy aversion. And rejecting global flood on such vague grounds continues to be even harder given the fact that there is even more physical, geologic evidence for such a flood.

Concerning the evidence for a global or near-global flood provided by the existence of fossils, there are 2 obvious and significant facts. First, almost all of earth’s fossils are found in sedimentary rock, which means that almost all of earth’s fossils are found in the thin veneer of sedimentary rock at the top of earth’s crust that was deposited by vast amounts of water.

“Fossil, I INTRODUCTION – Fossil, remains or traces of prehistoric plants and animals, buried and preserved in sedimentary rock, or trapped in organic matter…Fossils are most commonly found in limestone, sandstone, and shale (sedimentary rock).” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Fossil – Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. These fossils formed from plant or animal remains that were quickly buried in sediments-the mud or sand that collects at the bottom of rivers, lakes, swamps, and oceans. After thousands of years, the weight of upper layers of sediment pressing down on the lower layers turned them into rock (see SEDIMENTARY ROCK).”– Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

Dating, General considerations, Distinctions between relative-age and absolute-age measurements – Unlike ages derived from fossils, which occur only in sedimentary rocks, absolute ages are obtained from minerals that grow as liquid rock bodies cool at or below the surface.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Sedimentary, rock – Most fossils are found in sedimentary rock. The fossils formed when sediments covered dead plants and animals. As the sediments changed to rock, either the remains or the outlines of the plants and animals were preserved. Some limestone is made entirely of fossil shells. See FOSSIL.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Maria Luisa Crawford, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Bryn Mawr College.

Sedimentary rock – Despite the relatively insignificant volume of the sedimentary rock shell, not only are most rocks exposed at the terrestrial surface of the sedimentary variety, but many of the significant events in Earth history are most accurately dated and documented by analyzing and interpreting the sedimentary rock record instead of the more voluminous igneous and metamorphic rock record. When properly understood and interpreted, sedimentary rocks provide information on ancient geography, termed paleogeography…Sedimentary rocks contain the fossil record of ancient life-forms that enables the documentation of the evolutionary advancement from simple to complex organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Stratigraphy, II PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY – Stratigraphy relies on four simple principles to unveil geologic history…The principle of faunal and floral succession states that because animals and plants evolve into new species, sedimentary rocks of different ages will contain fossils of different species."Stratigraphy," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

"Geologic Time, III DATING METHODS – In order to determine the relative age of rock layers, scientists use three simple principles…The third principle, that of fossil succession, deals with fossils in sedimentary rock." – "Geologic Time," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Dating, General considerations, Distinctions between relative-age and absolute-age measurements – In fact, even in younger rocks, absolute dating is the only way that the fossil record can be calibrated. Without absolute ages, investigators could only determine which fossil organisms lived at the same time and the relative order of their appearance in the correlated sedimentary rock record.”– Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Second, fossils are formed when organisms are buried when sedimentary rock layers are being laid down.

“Fossil, I INTRODUCTION – Fossil, remains or traces of prehistoric plants and animals, buried and preserved in sedimentary rock, or trapped in organic matter…Fossils are most commonly found in limestone, sandstone, and shale (sedimentary rock).” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Fossil – Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. These fossils formed from plant or animal remains that were quickly buried in sediments-the mud or sand that collects at the bottom of rivers, lakes, swamps, and oceans. After thousands of years, the weight of upper layers of sediment pressing down on the lower layers turned them into rock (see SEDIMENTARY ROCK).”– Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

Sedimentary, rock – Most fossils are found in sedimentary rock. The fossils formed when sediments covered dead plants and animals. As the sediments changed to rock, either the remains or the outlines of the plants and animals were preserved. Some limestone is made entirely of fossil shells. See FOSSIL.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Maria Luisa Crawford, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Bryn Mawr College.

Furthemore, the vast, vast majority of organisms do not form fossils. To become a fossil, an organism must be buried quickly.

Fossil, How fossils formThe great majority of plants and animals die and decay without leaving any trace in the fossil record. Bacteria and other microorganisms break down such soft tissues as leaves or flesh. As a result, these tissues rarely leave fossil records. Even most hard parts, such as bones, teeth, shells, or wood, are eventually worn away by moving water or dissolved by chemicals. But when plant or animal remains have been buried in sediment, they may become fossilized.” – Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

FossilIn general, for an organism to be preserved two conditions must be met: rapid burial to retard decomposition and to prevent the ravaging of scavengers; and possession of hard parts capable of being fossilized.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

FossilMost fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. These fossils formed from plant or animal remains that were quickly buried in sediments-the mud or sand that collects at the bottom of rivers, lakes, swamps, and oceans. After thousands of years, the weight of upper layers of sediment pressing down on the lower layers turned them into rock (see SEDIMENTARY ROCK).” – Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

On this point it is important to note that the presence of fossils in sedimentary rock actually demonstrates that sedimentary rock layers were not laid down slowly over long periods of time by gradual, normative physical processes such as erosion. Such processes are too slow to bury organisms rapidly in order for them to be preserved as fossils. Thus, not only do fossils require rapid burial but, in direct contradiction of uniformitarianism, the sedimentary rocks that contain fossils also had to have been formed extremely rapidly.

In addition, it is acknowledged scientific fact that most fossils are admittedly formed in a watery environment.

FossilThe great majority of fossils are preserved in a water environment because land remains are more easily destroyed.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Fossil, How fossils formFossils may be preserved in several ways. The main processes of fossilization are (1) the formation of impressions, molds, and casts; (2) carbonization; and (3) the action of mineralsMolds form after hard parts have been buried in mud, clay, or other material that turns to stone. Later, water dissolves the buried hard part, leaving a mold-a hollow space in the shape of the original hard part-inside the rock. A cast forms when water containing dissolved minerals and other fine particles later drains through a mold. The water deposits these substances, which eventually fill the mold, forming a copy of the original hard part. Many seashells are preserved as molds or casts…The action of minerals – Many plants and animals became fossilized after water that contained minerals soaked into the pores of the original hard parts. This action is called petrifaction. In many such fossils, some or all of the original material remains, but it has been strengthened and preserved by the minerals. This process is called permineralization. The huge tree trunks in the Petrified Forest of Arizona were preserved by permineralization. In other cases, the minerals in the water totally replaced the original plant or animal part. This process, called replacement, involves two events that happen at the same time: The water dissolves the compounds that make up the original material, while the minerals are deposited in their place.” – Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

What is most important is the statement from the first quote above that “The great majority of fossils are preserved in a water environment because land remains are more easily destroyed.” Yet, we do have an enormous amount of fossilized remains from land organisms. Remains do not fossilize unless under water and sedimentary rock layers, which are where fossils are found, only form in water. This indicates that both the fossilized land organisms and the land in which they are fossilized were covered with water at their time of death. Here again, the rapid burial of land organisms in a watery environment and in rocks that are laid down by water is strong physical evidence for a global flood.

If all that we had was the worldwide independent testimonies of a global flood from the historic record, the coating of the earth with a form of rock that is predominantly laid down by water, and the fact that we have numerous land organisms that must have died and been quickly buried in rock layers laid down by water, we would be forced to conclude that the earth’s history contained at least one massive global or near-global flooding event. Since neither uniformitarian geologic nor evolution or even atheistic philosophical principles prohibit the acceptance of a global flood, with all this evidence, the question remains as to what the elusive reason is for rejecting such a flood.

Concerning the evidence provided by the location of the fossils, we find the following acknowledged, scientific facts. Keeping in mind that both the fossils and the rock layers that contain them must be formed quickly, it is important that fossils were formed and distributed in out-of-place locations around the world. This means that animals died and were quickly buried in rock layers in places that those types of organisms don’t belong.

First, geographic areas that are presently land-locked contain marine fossils. This indicates that areas, which are inland today, were once under water.

Geology, History – In the 400's B.C., the historian Herodotus observed how water shapes the land. He understood that land at the mouth of the Nile River had formed from sand and mud deposited by the river. He also believed that marine fossils found in Lower Egypt were evidence that the sea had once covered the land.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Maria Luisa Crawford, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Bryn Mawr College.

For example, fossilized oysters have been found in Kansas.

Fossil, How fossils reveal the past, Recording changes in the earthPaleontologists use fossils to determine how the earth's climate and landscape have changed over millions of years…Paleontologists have found fossil oysters in Kansas and other areas that are far inland today. Such fossils reveal that a shallow sea once spread over these areas.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

Similarly, not only are marine fossils deposited inland, but sometimes marine rock formations exist over rock formations made by rivers, indicating that the area was once covered by ocean water.

Stratigraphy, II PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHYThe principle of superposition states that, in an undeformed sequence of strata, younger strata lie on top of older strata…For example, where marine-deposited rock lies above river-deposited rock, geologists reason that the site evolved from a river environment to a marine environment during the period when the sediments were deposited. Either the land sank, or the sea rose.” – "Stratigraphy," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

For example, there are 6,000 meters of exposed marine limestone in Nevada.

Stratigraphy, IV HISTORIC IMPORTANCE OF STRATIGRAPHYStratigraphy developed in England during the early 1800s with the work of a land surveyor named William Smith…For example, sedimentation rates of marine limestone not deposited on reefs typically range from about 2 to 20 cm (about 0.8 to 8 in) per thousand years. At these rates, about 6000 m (20,000 ft) of marine limestone exposed as tilted beds in southern Nevada required at least 30 to 300 million years of continuous deposition.” – "Stratigraphy," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

In addition, marine fossils have been found on mountaintops.

Fossil, How fossils reveal the pastIn the distant past, when most fossils formed, the world was different from today. Plants and animals that have long since vanished inhabited the waters and land. A region now covered with high mountains may have been the floor of an ancient sea.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

Fossil, III WHERE FOSSILS FORM – Fossils are found in all parts of the world, from Greenland to Antarctica. They can be found in cores drilled in and retrieved from the ocean floor, and on top of the highest mountains. Their wide geographical distribution is a result of the way the earth's surface has changed throughout its history.” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

This indicates that those mountaintops were once under water and that the mountains have risen higher since then.

Furthermore, polar regions have tropical fossils, indicating that the whole earth may have at one point had a tropical climate.

Fossil, How fossils reveal the pastIn the distant past, when most fossils formed, the world was different from today…Where a lush tropical forest thrived millions of years ago, there may now be a cool, dry plain.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

Fossil, III WHERE FOSSILS FORM – Fossils are found in all parts of the world, from Greenland to Antarctica…Their wide geographical distribution is a result of the way the earth's surface has changed throughout its history…Some land that is now in the polar regions was once closer to the equator, and many modern mountain ranges were once under water.” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Fossil, IV LEARNING FROM FOSSILS, A Evolution – Because of the movement of the earth's tectonic plates, most continents have drifted through various climatic zones over geological time. As a result, a particular region may have passed more than once through equatorial regions with rain forests, through tropical latitudes with deserts, and through temperate zones. The fossil record suggests that climatic variation is greater now than it was during the Jurassic Period. In Antarctica, Australia, and New Zealand, which were all close to the South Pole during the Jurassic Period, fossils of plants and animals that are normally associated with warm climates have been found.” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Fossil, How fossils reveal the past, Recording changes in the earthPaleontologists use fossils to determine how the earth's climate and landscape have changed over millions of years. For instance, they have found fossils of tropical palm trees in Wyoming, an area that has a cool climate today. These fossils indicate that the climate in that area has cooled.” – Worldbook, Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

This brings us to the fourth category of evidence. The evidence indicates that this climate change was not slow and gradual as uniformitarianism asserts but instead was extremely rapid. In Alaska and Siberia, mammoths froze quick enough to have their “soft” organic parts and their “last meals” preserved.

Fossil, How fossils formIn Alaska and in Siberia, a region in northern Asia, woolly mammoths thousands of years old have been found frozen in the ground. Their hair, skin, flesh, and internal organs have been preserved as they were when the mammoths died.” – Contributor: Steven M. Stanley, Ph.D., Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University.

Fossil, II PROCESSES OF FOSSILIZATION, E Soft-Tissue PreservationThe soft tissues of animals are preserved only under extremely unusual conditions, and the preserved tissue usually lasts for only a short period of geological time. In the Siberian permafrost (earth that remains frozen year-round), for example, entire mammoths have been preserved in ice for thousands of years. The remains of the mammoths' last meals have sometimes been preserved in the stomachs, allowing paleontologists to study the animals' diet.” – "Fossil," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

When we consider the evidence what might have caused the earth’s climate to change rapidly enough to preserve the soft tissue of mammoths, including their “last meals,” we find further evidence that the outer veneer of sedimentary rock was formed rapidly. This evidence comes from the role that carbon dioxide gas plays in climate and temperature.

The amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere determines how warm the global climate is overall

Earth [planet], Earth's changing climateMany scientists also believe that variations in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are responsible for long-term changes in the climate. Carbon dioxide, a "greenhouse gas," traps heat from the sun and warms Earth's atmosphere. Most of Earth's carbon dioxide is locked in carbonate rocks, such as limestone and dolomite. Earth's climate today would be much warmer if the carbon dioxide trapped in limestone were released into the atmosphere.” – Contributor: Steven I. Dutch, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.

Chemical compound, Inorganic compounds, Oxides, Nonmetal oxides, Oxides of carbon, Carbon dioxide – The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere has significantly increased in the last several years largely because of the burning of fossil fuelsThere is increasing concern that the resulting increased heat in the atmosphere could cause the Earth's average temperature to increase 2° to 3° C over a period of time. This change would have a serious impact on the environment, affecting climate, ocean levels, and agriculture.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

Paleoclimatology – Changes in atmospheric chemistry affect climate in a number of ways. Oxygen, ozone, and carbon dioxide levels have varied throughout time, with corresponding effects on solar heat absorption and, therefore, on global temperature. High carbon dioxide levels trap heat from the sun in the atmosphere, leading to a greenhouse effect.” – "Paleoclimatology," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Environment, VI Current Issues, B Global Warming – Like the glass panes in a greenhouse, certain gases in the earth's atmosphere permit the sun's radiation to heat the earth but retard the escape into space of the infrared energy radiated back out by the earth. This process is referred to as the greenhouse effect. These gases, primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor, insulate the earth's surface, helping to maintain warm temperatures. Without these gases, the earth would be a frozen planet with an average temperature of about -18° C (about 0° F) instead of a comfortable 15° C (59° F). If the concentration of these gases were higher, more heat would be trapped within the atmosphere, and worldwide temperatures would rise.” – "Environment," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

A very large amount of the earth’s carbon dioxide is buried in sedimentary rock, which as we have seen would have had to be laid down very rapidly in order to form fossils.

Earth [planet], Earth's changing climateMany scientists also believe that variations in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are responsible for long-term changes in the climate. Carbon dioxide, a "greenhouse gas," traps heat from the sun and warms Earth's atmosphere. Most of Earth's carbon dioxide is locked in carbonate rocks, such as limestone and dolomite. Earth's climate today would be much warmer if the carbon dioxide trapped in limestone were released into the atmosphere.” – Contributor: Steven I. Dutch, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.

"Atmosphere, Composition of the present atmosphere, Major components of the lower atmosphere, Distribution of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, Carbon compounds – The bulk of the Earth's volatile carbon resides in sediments, either as organic carbon or as a component of carbonate minerals such as calcite, CaCO3.” – Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition

So, not only did the outer veneer of sedimentary rock have to form rapidly in order to preserve the fossils, but the outer veneer of sedimentary rock would have to form rapidly in order to quickly remove “most of earth’s carbon dioxide” and explain a cooling of climate so equally rapid as to preserve the soft tissue and undigested food of mammoths.

Once again, if all that we had was the worldwide independent testimonies of a global flood from the historic record, the coating of the earth with a form of rock that is predominantly laid down by water, the fact that we have numerous land organisms that must have died and been quickly buried in rock layers laid down by water, the location of marine fossils on mountaintops and deep inland, and evidence for an extremely fast cooling of the climate as large amounts of carbon dioxide gas were quickly buried in sedimentary rock layers, we would be forced to conclude that the earth’s history contained at least one massive global or near-global flooding event.

All of these facts are consistent with the idea of a global flood, such as the one described in the Bible, which even includes a climate shift. In the Biblical account, the first mention of cold and winter come after the Flood, indicating that the global climate before the flood was much warmer all around.

Genesis 8:15 And God spake unto Noah, saying, 16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons’ wives with thee. 17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth…22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

Consequently, when we compare the Judeo-Christian scripture as a historical record, we find that it is accurate even concerning its description and prediction of a rapid climate shift, which is now indicated by the observable physical evidence.

We can also consider this issue in terms of a theory’s ability to make predictions. If a global or near-global flood did occur, what predictions would that lead to? Would we expect to see accounts of a global flood in cultures in every hemisphere? We do. Would we expect to see multitudes of organisms rapidly buried in rock formations also laid down by water very rapidly? We do. Would we expect to see fossil and mineral evidence that marine (ocean or sea) water covered regions far inland and the tops of the mountains? We do. If we consider the record of a flood as a hypothesis, we find that it not only makes predictions but that those predictions are confirmed exactly by the observable evidence.

Near the start of this segment, we asked some key questions concerning why the idea of a global flood is rejected. The first question was general. Why isn’t a global or near-global flood accepted within uniformitarian geology? The remaining 3 questions were more specific.

We asked, “Is a global Flood with a mass extinction incompatible and unacceptable within uniformitarian geologic principles?” We found out that the answer was “no,” a global flood and an accompanying mass extinction are in no way incompatible with uniformitarian or geologic principles. Floods, mass extinctions caused by unique catastrophic events, and even a world covered by ice are all accepted within the uniformitarian and evolutionary views. Furthermore, there is no reason that global flooding could not be considered to be semi-regular just as ice ages are under uniformitarian principles.

We then asked, “Does accepting a global Flood require accepting or believing in God?” We found out that the answer to this question was also “no.” Cultures deemed “primitive” attribute all kinds of natural phenomena and natural disasters to deities. Yet, all these natural events are accepted as real events by evolutionists, uniformitarians, and even atheists alike, even though they reject any divine causation for such events.

Finally, we asked, “Is there simply no evidence or not enough evidence to support or suggest a global or near global Flood?” And once again, we have found that the answer to this question is “no.” There is more than ample evidence from both the historic and geologic record to substantiate the occurrence of a massive global or near-global flood in earth’s recent geologic history. This evidence includes independent, worldwide accounts of a global flood resulting in the destruction and subsequent restart of human civilization, the need for fossils to be buried rapidly, the subsequent need for sedimentary rock to be laid down rapidly enough to form fossils, the fact that fossils are formed primarily in watery environments, the fact that marine fossils and marine rock formations were formed quickly in watery environments in places that are deep inland or on mountaintops, and the fact that there was a rapid cooling of the climate requiring the rapid burial of large amounts of carbon dioxide in sedimentary rock layers.

So, since neither uniformitarian geologic nor evolution or even atheistic philosophical principles prohibit the acceptance of a global flood, and with all this massive historic and geologic evidence, the nagging question still remains. If a global flood is compatible with uniformitarianism, does not require belief in god, and is supported by vast amounts of historical and geological evidence, why is a global flood rejected?

The answer is that a global flood is rejected precisely because it explains too much of the evidence. If sedimentary rock layers were laid down quickly rather than gradually, and the climate changed rapidly rather than slowly, and the fossils around the world resulted from these rapid events, then what evidence is left for an earth that is hundreds of millions or billions of years old? None.

Since the occurrence of a global or near-global flood would indicate that the rock strata or layers around the earth formed quickly, rather than slowly, and the fossils in them likewise formed within that short timeframe, the occurrence of a global flood would simply demolish relative dating schemes, which are based upon assigning distinct, long ages to different rock layers. And, the occurrence of a flood would also significantly incapacitate many of the central absolute dating methods. For instance, the removal of larger amounts of carbon dioxide would dramatically affect the carbon-14 ratio necessary to calculate absolute ages. And the volcanic activity that would trigger heating events in igneous and metamorphic rocks would drastically affect the isotope ratios for other absolute dating processes as well. Later on, as we cover radiometric dating in-depth, we will cover these problems in more detail.

In summary, so far we have seen that uniformitarianism, which is the direct basis for relative dating methods and the indirect basis for radiometric dating methods, is simply an un-provable assumption while the alternative catastrophic view of creationism has been directly observed. Far from being able to deny or reject catastrophism in principle, uniformitarianism actually acknowledges the role of major catastrophes in forming the geologic features of the earth and in causing major extinction events. And finally, uniformitarianism, evolution, and atheism have no principle or reason to reject the massive, worldwide historical and geologic evidence for a global or near-global flood in the relatively recent past. As we continue to build our understanding of these issues, we will see that there is no evidence, including from relative dating methods and radiometric dating methods (such as carbon-14 or potassium-argon dating), that the earth is more than a several thousand years old and that its features were formed, not slowly, but rapidly as a result of this well-attested, catastrophic, global flood.

For now, the important point as we leave this issue is that the case of the flood reveals the drastic and stubborn unscientific bias behind evolutionary geology. The Flood cannot be rejected on the grounds that it is compatible with uniformitarian geology. The Flood cannot be rejected on the grounds that it requires belief in divine beings. The Flood cannot be rejected on the grounds that there is no evidence for it. There is vast geologic and historic evidence of a Flood. The only reason that the Flood is rejected is because it removes sedimentary rock, fossils, and the main forms of absolute dating from being indicators of the earth’s age. Since these 3 items (sedimentary rock, fossils, and absolute dating) are the only 3 avenues of evidence used to indicate a very long age of the earth, this would leave the evolutionary theory that the earth is millions or billions of years old entirely without any support.


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