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End Times Prophecy (Eschatology)
Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 1)
Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 1)
Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 2)
Prophetic Symbols: Daniel 9 and
10 (Part 3)
Prophetic Symbols: Revelation
13 (Part 1)
Prophetic Symbols: Revelation
13 (Part 2)
Prophetic Symbols: Revelation
13 (Part 3)
Daniel 9:21 Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even
the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the
beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the
time of the evening oblation. 22 And he informed me, and talked
with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee
skill and understanding. 23 At the beginning of thy supplications
the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for
thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter,
and consider the vision. 24 Seventy weeks are determined
upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the
transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation
for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and
to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most
Holy. 25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going
forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem
unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks,
and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built
again, and the wall, even in troublous times. 26 And after
threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but
not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall
come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the
end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the
war desolations are determined. 27 And he shall confirm
the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst
of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation
to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall
make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined
shall be poured upon the desolate.
Daniel 9:21-27 contains the famous prophecy regarding the
70 sevens. However, since our current study is focused on
establishing symbolic precedent, we won't be spending any
time in this article discussing the details and history regarding
those 70 weeks. Instead, we will be focusing on verses 25-27.
The first thing to note is that most Christians interpret
the word "prince" in verse 26 to refer to the antichrist.
Thus, because verse 26 refers to this prince being "of the
people" that "destroy the city and the sanctuary," the common
interpretation has been that since the Romans destroyed the
city of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 A.D., the antichrist
would be Roman or at least European either in ancestral descent
or by political ties.
We should note that the word "prince" is the same Hebrew word
in verse 26, where it refers to the prince of the Romans as
it is in verse 25 where it refers to Jesus Christ the Messiah
as "the prince." It is the Hebrew word "nagiyd" (Strong's
No. 05057), which means, "leader, ruler, captain, prince."
We should note that there are two different words for "prince"
used in Daniel. The second Hebrew word translated as "prince"
is the Hebrew word "sar" (Strong's No. 08269), which has a
meaning almost identical to "nagiyd." "Sar" means "prince,
ruler, leader, chief, chieftain, official, captain."
In fact, while Daniel 9:26 refers to Jesus Christ as a "nagiyd,"
Isaiah 9:6 refers to Jesus as a "sar," and in famous phrase,
"Prince of peace." Moreover, Daniel 8:11 and 26 both describe
Jesus Christ as a "sar."
Daniel 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince
of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken
away, and the place of the sanctuary was cast down.
Daniel 8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause
craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself
in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also
stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall
be broken without hand.
In Daniel 8:11, Jesus is described as the prince of the host.
And in Daniel 8:25, Jesus is referred to as the "Prince of
princes," or "Sar of sars." From this we can gather that while
the terms "nagiyd" and "sar" are different words, they are
interchangeable on two levels. First, since Jesus is described
in some places as a "sar" and others as a "nagiyd," we know
that these terms are interchangeable in terms of how they
are used. Second, their definitions are almost identical.
Both "sar" and "nagiyd" are primarily defined as "leader,
ruler, captain, prince." This makes "sar" and "nagiyd" interchangeable
on a definitional level. So, in terms of both definition and
usage, the terms "sar" and "nagiyd" are effectively interchangeable.
Now, we have made these points for the following reasons.
First, since "prince" is initially used to describe the Messiah
in Daniel 9:26 BEFORE "prince" is used to describe the prince
of the Romans in verse 27, we know that the KIND of prince
referred to in verse 27 is a similar kind to Jesus Christ
himself, for both are said to be a "nagiyd." Now, we often
think of Jesus Christ in terms of his humanity and his being
an earthly king, but he is also a spiritual ruler as well.
And this is quite significant, because it means that the Roman
prince, who is referred to in verse 27 could be a human king,
but he could also be a spiritual ruler as well, in the same
way that Jesus is a spiritual ruler.
In fact, when Christ comes to rule in his earthly kingdom
during the millennial reign, he will be ruling in his glorified
(resurrected) body. Now, as we describe in detail in our series
of articles on cosmology, Jesus himself declares that resurrected
humans will be "like" or "equal" to the angels.
Matthew 22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye
do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.
30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor
are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in
Luke 20:35 But they which shall be accounted worthy
to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead,
neither marry, nor are given in marriage: 36 Neither can
they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels;
and are the children of God, being the children of the
In fact, the phrase "equal to the angels" is all one word
in the Greek, "isaggelos." Isaggelos is a compound word comprised
of two words, "isos" (meaning "equal in quantity or quality)
and "aggelos" (meaning "angel.") Notice that in Luke 20, Jesus
also states that in the resurrection, "neither can they die
any more." This indicates once again that Jesus is speaking
of the same thing Paul later recounts when he writes in 1
Corinthians 15:50-53 that when we are raised (or changed in
the twinkling of an eye) we will be "raised a spiritual body"
and "put on immortality." The fact is, as Paul plainly states,
un-glorified human that are mere "flesh and blood cannot inherit
the kingdom of God." As Paul explains, in order to inherit
the kingdom of God and rule with Christ during his 1000-year
reign (as Revelation 20:4-5 declares), we must receive bodies
that Jesus described saying, "neither can they die any more:
for they are equal unto the angels... being the children of
So, in order to rule and reign with Christ during the kingdom
of God, we must receive glorified bodies, and these glorified
bodies, according to Jesus, are equal in quality to the angels,
and cannot die, but are immortal. (And this is not just a
comparison of our bodies to the bodies of angels. For Jesus'
words state that we, resurrected humans, not just our bodies,
will be equal to the angels.) Therefore, when we rule and
reign with Christ over the earth in the Millennium, we will
be equal to the angels.
And not only that, but this is the same kind of body that
Jesus himself now has, since he has been resurrected and glorified.
For according to 1 John 3:2 and Philippians 3:20-21 and 1
Corinthians 15:44, 47-49 our glorified bodies are of the same
kind as that of the resurrected Christ Jesus.
1 John 3:2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and
it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that,
when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall
see him as he is.
Philippians 3:20 For our conversation is in heaven;
from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus
Christ: 21 Who shall change our vile body, that it
may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according
to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things
1 Corinthians 15:44 It is sown a natural body; it
is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and
there is a spiritual body...47 The first man is of the
earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven.
48 As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and
as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.
49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall
also bear the image of the heavenly.
Since according to Jesus Christ humans in resurrected glorified
bodies are "as the angels" and since according to 1 John 3:2,
Philippians 3:20, and 1 Corinthians 15:44, 47-49 our resurrected
glorified bodies are equal to the resurrected glorified body
of Christ Jesus, we know that Jesus Christ's resurrected glorified
body is likewise equal in kind to the spiritual body of angels.
(And as Paul clearly states in 1 Corinthians 15, "there is
a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.")
As we have already shown from Daniel 2, 7, and 8, all three
visions concern the succession of Gentile empires and how
that succession will finally come to an end when the dominion
passes from the last of them to Jesus Christ and the saints.
Therefore, we know that when Christ comes to rule in his Millennial
kingdom and destroys this succession of Gentile empires to
replace it with his own, it will be in a body that is like
and equal to the spirit bodies of angels, which he has had,
in fact, ever since his resurrection. Consequently, it is
completely accurate to state that when Christ comes to rule
as the Prince of princes, he is coming as an angelic ruler,
for his body will at that time be equal to the immortal bodies
of the angels. Likewise, those of us who rule with him will
also be "as the angels" and "as he is."
Now we return to our discussion of the term "prince" in Daniel
9 and 10. In Daniel 10, Daniel receives yet another vision
and in it, an angel (probably Gabriel - see Daniel 9:21) speaks
to him. Here is what the angel says to Daniel.
Daniel 10:12 Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel:
for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to
understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words
were heard, and I am come for thy words. 13 But the prince
of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days:
but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to
help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia...20
Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and
now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and
when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come.
21 But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture
of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these
things, but Michael your prince.
Here in Daniel 10, we have an angel coming to speak to Daniel
and he explains to Daniel that Daniel's prayers were answered
right away but someone known as the prince of Persia was able
to restrain him. Now, who is able to restrain an angel and
keep him from traveling to Daniel to deliver a message? The
prince of Persia is another angelic being, one who retains
rule over the Persians. And notice that Michael is also said
to be one of the "chief princes." And the same is said of
Michael again in Daniel 12:1. It is the same word prince in
all three cases ("sars," Strong's No. 08269.) So, this "prince
of Persia" is of the same classification as Michael. Both
Michael and the prince of Persia are angelic princes, which
makes sense of how this prince of Persia was able to restrain
the angel sent to talk with Daniel.
We know from Daniel 8 that Persia was to be succeeded in power
by Greece. And what does the angel tell Daniel in verse 20?
He tells Daniel that after he fights with the prince of Persia,
the prince of Greece "shall come." So, while the Persians
controlled the empire, the angelic Persian prince withstood
Michael and the other angel. And when the empire passes to
the Greeks, the angelic Grecian prince would then come. So,
we see that these empires all have angelic rulers over them,
and when those nations rise to power, there angelic prince
is said to "come forth."
This is also consistent with Jesus Christ coming as the "Prince
of princes" ("Sar of sars" Daniel 8:25) for when Jesus comes
to reign, he will come as the king of the Jewish nation and
set the nation of Israel as the head of nations in his kingdom.
Now, given that the word "prince" is first applied in Daniel
9 to the Messiah, who is a spiritual ruler and not just a
human ruler, and given that Daniel 10 speaks of the princes
of both Persia and Greece, even saying that the Prince of
Greece "shall come," when we read the phrase "people of the
prince that shall come" in Daniel 9:26, we can see quite plainly
that verse 26 is speaking of an angelic prince or ruler, in
particular the angelic prince of the Romans, who destroyed
the city and the sanctuary.
And, of course, this use of the phrase "prince that shall
come" is also perfectly consistent with the rest of Daniel.
We know that the order of succession for the Imperial dominion
was from Babylon, to Media-Persia, to Greece, and then to
Rome. In Daniel 10, the angelic ruler of Greece is referred
to in the phrase "when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of
Grecia shall come." Likewise, in Daniel 9:26, when we see
the phrase "the prince that shall come" we know that it is
referring to the angelic prince over the people who destroyed
the Jerusalem and the temple, and not to the human antichrist
figure. This makes perfect sense since not only Greece, but
also Rome, were both yet to come in the succession of the
empire from one nation to another.
Therefore, we can safely conclude that while the angelic prince
over the Romans will be involved in the kingdom of the antichrist,
the antichrist himself does not need to be "of the people
that destroy the city and the sanctuary." The antichrist does
NOT need to be Roman or even European. We will touch more
no this later when we get to Revelation 17.
But did the New Testament authors uphold this interpretation
that the nations are ruled by angelic princes?
In Matthew 4 and Luke 4 we read about the temptation of Jesus
by the devil after Jesus had fasted for forty days and nights
out in the wilderness.
Matthew 4:8 Again, the devil taketh him up into
an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms
of the world, and the glory of them; 9 And saith unto
him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall
down and worship me. 10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get
thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the
Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
Luke 4:5 And the devil, taking him up into an
high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the
world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said unto him,
All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them:
for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will
I give it. 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall
be thine. 8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee
behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the
Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
In the Matthew account, the devil tells Jesus he will give
him all the kingdoms of the world, if Jesus will just worship
him. This strongly implies that the devil at least believed
all the kingdoms of the world were his to give at that point
in time. In the Luke account, the devil actually states this,
saying of the kingdoms of the world that they are "delivered
unto" him and "to whomsoever" he will give them. We should
note that Jesus does not contradict the devil about his right
to give the kingdoms to whomever he wishes, but only about
bowing down to worship him.
Now, by saying that the world's kingdoms are ruled by angelic
princes we are not saying that God has no dominion here nor
that God's dominion here has been lost to those angels because
of the sin of man. Rather, we are saying that like God made
Michael a prince over the Jews (and presumably all God's people
as Gentiles were saved), likewise God set the chief adversary
as a steward over the kingdoms of the world and he, in turn,
delegated lesser angelic rulers under him to be stewards of
particular Gentile nations. The fact that these angelic stewards
over nations have turned against God in no way negates God's
rightful authority over them all. For they have this authority
by God's delegation and not because of man's fall.
But let's continue with the rest of our New Testament survey
to see if this is just the devil's self-delusion, or if the
New Testament writers also agree that angelic rulers have
control over the nations.
Matthew 12:26 And if Satan cast out Satan,
he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom
Now, the Greek word for Satan is "satanas" (Strong's No. 4567)
and it is derived from a similar Aramaic word. In both the
Greek and the Aramaic, the word simply means "adversary."
So, here in Matthew 12 we see Jesus discussing the idea of
one adversarial spirit fighting against another adversarial
spirit. While Jesus notes that this is a ridiculous scenario,
he also notes that the adversary does indeed have a kingdom.
Three times in the Gospel of John, Jesus uses the phrase "prince
of this world."
John 12:31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall
the prince of this world be cast out.
John 14:30 Hereafter I will not talk much with you:
for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing
John 16:11 Of judgment, because the prince of this
world is judged.
As can be seen from these three passages, Jesus clearly spoke
and taught of the existence of an angelic being that Jesus
himself at the time referred to as "the prince of this world."
At that time, this would have been the Roman prince spoken
of by Daniel in Daniel 9:26 as the "prince who will come"
who is the prince over "the people who shall destroy the city
and the sanctuary." It would appear from the text that the
chief adversary who tempted Jesus had delegated power to rule
the nations to the Roman angelic prince, just as he promised
to Jesus during those temptations. It was this Roman prince
who was about to be cast down, while the chief adversary (the
one who tempted Jesus), who is "called the Devil, and Satan"
is not cast out until the final 3 1/2 years before the Millennial
reign of Christ according to Revelation 12:7-17.
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