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Particulars of Christianity:
314 End Times Prophecy (Eschatology)

Prophetic Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 1)

Prophetic Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 1)
Prophetic Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 2)
Prophetic Symbols: Daniel 9 and 10 (Part 3)
Prophetic Symbols: Revelation 13 (Part 1)
Prophetic Symbols: Revelation 13 (Part 2)
Prophetic Symbols: Revelation 13 (Part 3)

Articles 7-12
Articles 13-18
Articles 19-25
Articles 26-29

Daniel 9:21 Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation. 22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding. 23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision. 24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. 25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. 26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. 27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

Daniel 9:21-27 contains the famous prophecy regarding the 70 sevens. However, since our current study is focused on establishing symbolic precedent, we won't be spending any time in this article discussing the details and history regarding those 70 weeks. Instead, we will be focusing on verses 25-27.

The first thing to note is that most Christians interpret the word "prince" in verse 26 to refer to the antichrist. Thus, because verse 26 refers to this prince being "of the people" that "destroy the city and the sanctuary," the common interpretation has been that since the Romans destroyed the city of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 A.D., the antichrist would be Roman or at least European either in ancestral descent or by political ties.

We should note that the word "prince" is the same Hebrew word in verse 26, where it refers to the prince of the Romans as it is in verse 25 where it refers to Jesus Christ the Messiah as "the prince." It is the Hebrew word "nagiyd" (Strong's No. 05057), which means, "leader, ruler, captain, prince."

We should note that there are two different words for "prince" used in Daniel. The second Hebrew word translated as "prince" is the Hebrew word "sar" (Strong's No. 08269), which has a meaning almost identical to "nagiyd." "Sar" means "prince, ruler, leader, chief, chieftain, official, captain."

In fact, while Daniel 9:26 refers to Jesus Christ as a "nagiyd," Isaiah 9:6 refers to Jesus as a "sar," and in famous phrase, "Prince of peace." Moreover, Daniel 8:11 and 26 both describe Jesus Christ as a "sar."

Daniel 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary was cast down.

Daniel 8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.

In Daniel 8:11, Jesus is described as the prince of the host. And in Daniel 8:25, Jesus is referred to as the "Prince of princes," or "Sar of sars." From this we can gather that while the terms "nagiyd" and "sar" are different words, they are interchangeable on two levels. First, since Jesus is described in some places as a "sar" and others as a "nagiyd," we know that these terms are interchangeable in terms of how they are used. Second, their definitions are almost identical. Both "sar" and "nagiyd" are primarily defined as "leader, ruler, captain, prince." This makes "sar" and "nagiyd" interchangeable on a definitional level. So, in terms of both definition and usage, the terms "sar" and "nagiyd" are effectively interchangeable.

Now, we have made these points for the following reasons. First, since "prince" is initially used to describe the Messiah in Daniel 9:26 BEFORE "prince" is used to describe the prince of the Romans in verse 27, we know that the KIND of prince referred to in verse 27 is a similar kind to Jesus Christ himself, for both are said to be a "nagiyd." Now, we often think of Jesus Christ in terms of his humanity and his being an earthly king, but he is also a spiritual ruler as well. And this is quite significant, because it means that the Roman prince, who is referred to in verse 27 could be a human king, but he could also be a spiritual ruler as well, in the same way that Jesus is a spiritual ruler.

In fact, when Christ comes to rule in his earthly kingdom during the millennial reign, he will be ruling in his glorified (resurrected) body. Now, as we describe in detail in our series of articles on cosmology, Jesus himself declares that resurrected humans will be "like" or "equal" to the angels.

Matthew 22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven.

Luke 20:35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage: 36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

In fact, the phrase "equal to the angels" is all one word in the Greek, "isaggelos." Isaggelos is a compound word comprised of two words, "isos" (meaning "equal in quantity or quality) and "aggelos" (meaning "angel.") Notice that in Luke 20, Jesus also states that in the resurrection, "neither can they die any more." This indicates once again that Jesus is speaking of the same thing Paul later recounts when he writes in 1 Corinthians 15:50-53 that when we are raised (or changed in the twinkling of an eye) we will be "raised a spiritual body" and "put on immortality." The fact is, as Paul plainly states, un-glorified human that are mere "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God." As Paul explains, in order to inherit the kingdom of God and rule with Christ during his 1000-year reign (as Revelation 20:4-5 declares), we must receive bodies that Jesus described saying, "neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels... being the children of the resurrection."

So, in order to rule and reign with Christ during the kingdom of God, we must receive glorified bodies, and these glorified bodies, according to Jesus, are equal in quality to the angels, and cannot die, but are immortal. (And this is not just a comparison of our bodies to the bodies of angels. For Jesus' words state that we, resurrected humans, not just our bodies, will be equal to the angels.) Therefore, when we rule and reign with Christ over the earth in the Millennium, we will be equal to the angels.

And not only that, but this is the same kind of body that Jesus himself now has, since he has been resurrected and glorified. For according to 1 John 3:2 and Philippians 3:20-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:44, 47-49 our glorified bodies are of the same kind as that of the resurrected Christ Jesus.

1 John 3:2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.

Philippians 3:20 For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: 21 Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.

1 Corinthians 15:44 It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body...47 The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven. 48 As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.

Since according to Jesus Christ humans in resurrected glorified bodies are "as the angels" and since according to 1 John 3:2, Philippians 3:20, and 1 Corinthians 15:44, 47-49 our resurrected glorified bodies are equal to the resurrected glorified body of Christ Jesus, we know that Jesus Christ's resurrected glorified body is likewise equal in kind to the spiritual body of angels. (And as Paul clearly states in 1 Corinthians 15, "there is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.")

As we have already shown from Daniel 2, 7, and 8, all three visions concern the succession of Gentile empires and how that succession will finally come to an end when the dominion passes from the last of them to Jesus Christ and the saints. Therefore, we know that when Christ comes to rule in his Millennial kingdom and destroys this succession of Gentile empires to replace it with his own, it will be in a body that is like and equal to the spirit bodies of angels, which he has had, in fact, ever since his resurrection. Consequently, it is completely accurate to state that when Christ comes to rule as the Prince of princes, he is coming as an angelic ruler, for his body will at that time be equal to the immortal bodies of the angels. Likewise, those of us who rule with him will also be "as the angels" and "as he is."

Now we return to our discussion of the term "prince" in Daniel 9 and 10. In Daniel 10, Daniel receives yet another vision and in it, an angel (probably Gabriel - see Daniel 9:21) speaks to him. Here is what the angel says to Daniel.

Daniel 10:12 Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words. 13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia...20 Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. 21 But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince.

Here in Daniel 10, we have an angel coming to speak to Daniel and he explains to Daniel that Daniel's prayers were answered right away but someone known as the prince of Persia was able to restrain him. Now, who is able to restrain an angel and keep him from traveling to Daniel to deliver a message? The prince of Persia is another angelic being, one who retains rule over the Persians. And notice that Michael is also said to be one of the "chief princes." And the same is said of Michael again in Daniel 12:1. It is the same word prince in all three cases ("sars," Strong's No. 08269.) So, this "prince of Persia" is of the same classification as Michael. Both Michael and the prince of Persia are angelic princes, which makes sense of how this prince of Persia was able to restrain the angel sent to talk with Daniel.

We know from Daniel 8 that Persia was to be succeeded in power by Greece. And what does the angel tell Daniel in verse 20? He tells Daniel that after he fights with the prince of Persia, the prince of Greece "shall come." So, while the Persians controlled the empire, the angelic Persian prince withstood Michael and the other angel. And when the empire passes to the Greeks, the angelic Grecian prince would then come. So, we see that these empires all have angelic rulers over them, and when those nations rise to power, there angelic prince is said to "come forth."

This is also consistent with Jesus Christ coming as the "Prince of princes" ("Sar of sars" Daniel 8:25) for when Jesus comes to reign, he will come as the king of the Jewish nation and set the nation of Israel as the head of nations in his kingdom.

Now, given that the word "prince" is first applied in Daniel 9 to the Messiah, who is a spiritual ruler and not just a human ruler, and given that Daniel 10 speaks of the princes of both Persia and Greece, even saying that the Prince of Greece "shall come," when we read the phrase "people of the prince that shall come" in Daniel 9:26, we can see quite plainly that verse 26 is speaking of an angelic prince or ruler, in particular the angelic prince of the Romans, who destroyed the city and the sanctuary.

And, of course, this use of the phrase "prince that shall come" is also perfectly consistent with the rest of Daniel. We know that the order of succession for the Imperial dominion was from Babylon, to Media-Persia, to Greece, and then to Rome. In Daniel 10, the angelic ruler of Greece is referred to in the phrase "when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come." Likewise, in Daniel 9:26, when we see the phrase "the prince that shall come" we know that it is referring to the angelic prince over the people who destroyed the Jerusalem and the temple, and not to the human antichrist figure. This makes perfect sense since not only Greece, but also Rome, were both yet to come in the succession of the empire from one nation to another.

Therefore, we can safely conclude that while the angelic prince over the Romans will be involved in the kingdom of the antichrist, the antichrist himself does not need to be "of the people that destroy the city and the sanctuary." The antichrist does NOT need to be Roman or even European. We will touch more no this later when we get to Revelation 17.

But did the New Testament authors uphold this interpretation that the nations are ruled by angelic princes?

In Matthew 4 and Luke 4 we read about the temptation of Jesus by the devil after Jesus had fasted for forty days and nights out in the wilderness.

Matthew 4:8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; 9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. 10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Luke 4:5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine. 8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

In the Matthew account, the devil tells Jesus he will give him all the kingdoms of the world, if Jesus will just worship him. This strongly implies that the devil at least believed all the kingdoms of the world were his to give at that point in time. In the Luke account, the devil actually states this, saying of the kingdoms of the world that they are "delivered unto" him and "to whomsoever" he will give them. We should note that Jesus does not contradict the devil about his right to give the kingdoms to whomever he wishes, but only about bowing down to worship him.

Now, by saying that the world's kingdoms are ruled by angelic princes we are not saying that God has no dominion here nor that God's dominion here has been lost to those angels because of the sin of man. Rather, we are saying that like God made Michael a prince over the Jews (and presumably all God's people as Gentiles were saved), likewise God set the chief adversary as a steward over the kingdoms of the world and he, in turn, delegated lesser angelic rulers under him to be stewards of particular Gentile nations. The fact that these angelic stewards over nations have turned against God in no way negates God's rightful authority over them all. For they have this authority by God's delegation and not because of man's fall.

But let's continue with the rest of our New Testament survey to see if this is just the devil's self-delusion, or if the New Testament writers also agree that angelic rulers have control over the nations.

Matthew 12:26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?

Now, the Greek word for Satan is "satanas" (Strong's No. 4567) and it is derived from a similar Aramaic word. In both the Greek and the Aramaic, the word simply means "adversary." So, here in Matthew 12 we see Jesus discussing the idea of one adversarial spirit fighting against another adversarial spirit. While Jesus notes that this is a ridiculous scenario, he also notes that the adversary does indeed have a kingdom.

Three times in the Gospel of John, Jesus uses the phrase "prince of this world."

John 12:31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.

John 14:30 Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me.

John 16:11 Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.

As can be seen from these three passages, Jesus clearly spoke and taught of the existence of an angelic being that Jesus himself at the time referred to as "the prince of this world." At that time, this would have been the Roman prince spoken of by Daniel in Daniel 9:26 as the "prince who will come" who is the prince over "the people who shall destroy the city and the sanctuary." It would appear from the text that the chief adversary who tempted Jesus had delegated power to rule the nations to the Roman angelic prince, just as he promised to Jesus during those temptations. It was this Roman prince who was about to be cast down, while the chief adversary (the one who tempted Jesus), who is "called the Devil, and Satan" is not cast out until the final 3 1/2 years before the Millennial reign of Christ according to Revelation 12:7-17.

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