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Basic Worldview:
104 Why Christianity?

Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 1)

Evidentiary Religions - Islam Introduction
Koran and Judeo-Christian Apostles
Koran and Judeo-Christian Scriptures
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 1)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 2)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 3)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 4)
Another Gospel and Explaining the Success of Islam (P. 1)
Explaining the Success of Islam (Part 2)
Explaining the Success of Islam (Part 3)
Islam Conclusions

| Section 1 | Section 2 | Section 3

The Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity

Having thoroughly established in the previous two sections that Mohammed in the Koran repeatedly affirms the divine origin and trueness of Judeo-Christian apostles and scriptures in order to confirm his own authenticity, we will now demonstrate the very clear extent to which the Koran itself contradicts the very apostles and scriptures it affirms as the true work of God. Consequently, since Mohammed's evidence for the Koran and Islam is based entirely upon appeals to these other scriptures and the assertion that the Koran is flawless, the entire supportive evidence for the Koran and Islam will be wiped out as a result of these contradictions with Judeo-Christian scripture. This is particularly the case since, as we have seen, Mohammed repeatedly and explicitly condemns any attempt to discriminate against or accept only portions of the previously revealed scriptures.

Our goal in this section, as in previous sections, is to be rather exhaustive in our survey. While this may prove to be tedious for the reader, we believe it is necessary in order to demonstrate the inescapable nature of our conclusion that Islam is falsified by its own claims and by the very evidence it offers as proof of its validity. Our format will be to start off with minor doctrinal or historic disagreements and then to conclude with the major disagreements with Judeo-Christian texts.

It should also be noted here at the beginning, that the Koran itself unintentionally tells us why there is contradiction between the Koran and the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which the Koran repeatedly appeals to and relies upon.

He replied: 'I will visit My scourge upon whom I please: yet My mercy encompasses all things. I will show mercy to those that keep from evil and give alms, and to those that in Our signs believe; to those that shall follow the Apostle - the Unlettered (2) Prophet - whom they shall find described to them in the Torah and the Gospel. (Koran, p. 121, 7:155, 2nd Para. - 7:157, 1st Para.) (Footnote 2: The word can also mean gentile.)

NOTE: The footnote above is provided by Koran translator N.J. Dawood.

In the quote above, Mohammed is referred to as the "Unlettered Prophet." The footnote is quick to point out that the word for "unlettered" can also mean "Gentile." However, the quote below will provide further explanation for what is meant by the "Unlettered" prophet.

Never have you read a book before this, nor have you ever transcribed one with your right hand. Had you done either, the unbelievers might have doubted. But to those who are endowed with knowledge it is an undoubted sign. Only the wrongdoers deny Our signs. They ask: 'Why have no signs been sent down to him by his Lord? Say: 'Signs are in the hands of God. My mission is only to give plain warning.' Is it not enough for them that We have revealed to you the Book for their instruction? Surely in this there is a blessing and an admonition for true believers. Say: 'Sufficient is God as my witness, and your witnesses. He knows all that the heavens and the earth contain. Those who believe in falsehood and deny God will surely be the losers.' (p. 282, 29:46, 3rd Para. - 29:52.)

Remember that God is said to be speaking these lines. Here God states that Mohammed has never read or transcribed a book before the Koran. And of course, as our introduction explains, Mohammed himself did not write the Koran, but it was written down and collected some time after his death. In fact, the Koran celebrates this fact with pride and upholds that Mohammed's never reading a book before he receives the Koran is itself evidence of the Koran's divine origin. This explains why Mohammed is given the title "the Unlettered Prophet" in the previous quote. In short, Mohammed is given the title "the Unlettered Prophet" because at that time Mohammed's history of never reading before the Koran was boldly heralded as a proof of the Koran's divine origin rather than something to be ashamed of.

The relevance this has for our study is that it provides a very easy explanation for why the Koran disagrees with the very same Judeo-Christian scriptures that it repeatedly and indiscriminately affirms. Simply put, the Koran and Judeo-Christians scriptures disagree because Mohammed had neither read nor studied the Judeo-Christian scriptures, although he had enough contact with Christians and Jews to be familiar with the main stories and figures.

And this is also a good explanation for why the accounts in the Koran are seldom comprehensive or complete, as the quotes below state. Mohammed simply did not know the details due to the fact that he had never read or studied them personally.

"Qur'an - Narrative passages are mostly brief. Stories of prophets and biblical persons are often alluded to as though they are known to the audience. The stress is not on the narrative but on its didactic uses." - Britannica.com

"Qur'an - The Qur'an refers to religious and historical events but seldom provides comprehensive accounts. Its focus is their significance, rather than their narration." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

At least one prominent Muslim defense of the Koran in the face of these discrepancies with Judeo-Christian scriptures is that the Judeo-Christian scriptures were corrupted by Jews and Christians and were no longer accurate. Thus, God supernaturally revealed to Mohammed the correct details, which had been lost or corrupted in the Judeo-Christian texts. However, there are 2 problems with this defense.

First, there is the obvious problem. There is no need to resort to a supernatural explanation for the discrepancies (i.e. that God revealed the correct accounts to Mohammed), when the readily available natural explanation will suffice. Or to put it another way, the fact that Mohammed never read or studied Judeo-Christian scriptures is a far simpler, and therefore, superior explanation for the discrepancies and this explanation is itself available in the historic record. There is no reason to resort to more complicated explanations involving supernatural events when simple, natural facts found in the historical record will account for the discrepancies and contradictions.

Second, in the Koran Mohammed has repeatedly condemned the practice of those who would accept some scriptures and deny others while at the same time Mohammed himself makes repeated universal endorsements of all scriptures without discrimination. Therefore, it would contradict the Koran for Mohammed (or modern Muslims) to discriminate against any scriptures just because a passage happens to disagree with the Koran.

Believers, have faith in God and His apostle, in the Book He has revealed to His apostles, and in the Scriptures He formerly revealed. He that denies God, His angels, His Scriptures, His apostles, and the Last Day has strayed far. (Koran, p. 75, 4:136, 1st Para.)

How can Mohammed and his followers say that they have faith in the scriptures that God had formerly revealed to other apostles if they believe those scriptures were corrupted and unreliable?

The Apostle believes in what has been revealed to him by his Lord, and so do the faithful. They all believe in God and His angels, His scriptures, and His apostles: We discriminate against none of His apostles. (Koran, p. 42, 2:283, 4th Para.)

How can Mohammed say that he believes in all God's scriptures without discriminating if at the same time he discounts some scriptures as corrupted and unreliable whenever those scriptures disagree with his own teaching?

We have given you the seven-oft repeated verses and the Glorious Koran. Do not regard with envy what We have given some among them to enjoy, nor grieve on their account. Show kindness to the faithful, and say: 'I am he that gives plain warning.' We will surely punish the schismatics, who have broken up the scriptures into separate parts, believing in some and denying others. By the Lord, We will question them all about their doings. (Koran, p. 186, 15:88 - p. 187, 15:89, 2nd Para.)

How can Mohammed condemn those who break up "scriptures into separate parts, believing some and denying others," if Mohammed himself discounts some scriptures as corrupt and unreliable whenever those scriptures disagree with his own teaching?

Be courteous when you argue with the People of the Book, except with those among them who do evil. Say: 'We believe in that which has been revealed to us and which was revealed to you. Our God and your God is one. To Him we submit.' (Koran, p. 282, 29:46.)

How can Mohammed tell Jews and Christians that he believes in what has been revealed to them, if he disregards their scriptures as corrupt and unreliable whenever those scriptures disagree with his own teaching?

Since Mohammed repeatedly endorses the previous scriptures "without discrimination," it is unfair to discriminate in order to defend or justify contradictions with the Koran. Because the Koran affirms and appeals to Scriptures that were formerly revealed through other apostles before Mohammed to other peoples, it is incorrect to state that according to the Koran (or Islam) that the Judeo-Christian scriptures are either as a whole or selectively corrupted.

We will now move ahead to compare and examine the differences between the Koran and the Judeo-Christian scriptures of the Old and New Testament. As stated earlier, our format will be to start off with minor doctrinal or historic disagreements and then to conclude with the major disagreements with Judeo-Christian texts. Please keep in mind the following 3 facts from the Koran as you read the contradictions below.

1.) According to the Koran, Mohammed and Muslims "believe in that which has been revealed to us and which was revealed to" the People of the Book, which are the Jews and Christians and "have faith in God and His Apostle, in the Book He has revealed to His apostles, and in the Scriptures He formerly revealed."

2.) According to the Koran, Mohammed condemns those anyone who "denies God" and "His Scriptures" or who "breaks up the scriptures into separate parts, believing in some and denying others.'

3.) According to the Koran, Mohammed had never read or transcribed a book before he received the Koran, which means that he had not read or studied the previous scriptures and so was not personally familiar with their contents.

Clear Contradictions on Minor Issues

Saul, David, Goliath and Gideon

According to the Koran, God gives King Saul and David victory over Goliath and his armies after God reduces the size of the Israelite army to only a few men who drank of the river from their hands. The majority of soldiers who drank from the river directly, without first lifting it up with their hands, were sent home so that the victory would be won with a small number to the glory of God.

And when Saul marched out with his army, he said: 'God will put you to the proof at a certain river. He that drinks from it shall cease to be my soldier, but he that does not drink from it, or contents himself with a taste of it in the hollow of his hand, shall fight by my side.' But they all drank from it, except a few of them. And when Saul had crossed the river with those who shared his faith, they said: 'We have no power this day against Goliath and his warriors.' But those of them who believed that they would meet God replied: 'Many a small band has, by God's grace, vanquished a mighty army. God is with those who endure with fortitude.' When they met Goliath and his warrior they cried: 'Lord, fill our hearts with steadfastness. Make us firm of foot and help us against the unbelievers.' By God's will they routed them. David slew Goliath, and God bestowed on him sovereignty and wisdom and taught him what He pleased. (Koran, p. 37, 2:249 - 2.250, 2nd Para.)

The problem is that the Koran is mixing up two separate stories from the Judeo-Christian scripture. The two stories erroneously combined by the Koran are the story of Gideon and the story of David and Goliath.

Judges 7:4 And the LORD said unto Gideon, The people are yet too many; bring them down unto the water, and I will try them for thee there: and it shall be, that of whom I say unto thee, This shall go with thee, the same shall go with thee; and of whomsoever I say unto thee, This shall not go with thee, the same shall not go. 5 So he brought down the people unto the water: and the LORD said unto Gideon, Every one that lappeth of the water with his tongue, as a dog lappeth, him shalt thou set by himself; likewise every one that boweth down upon his knees to drink. 6 And the number of them that lapped, putting their hand to their mouth, were three hundred men: but all the rest of the people bowed down upon their knees to drink water. 7 And the LORD said unto Gideon, By the three hundred men that lapped will I save you, and deliver the Midianites into thine hand: and let all the other people go every man unto his place.

1 Samuel 17:4 And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath,whose height was six cubits and a span...8 And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me...24 And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid...50 So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David...52 And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.

There are several contradictions here between the Bible and the Koran.

First, in the Bible, it is Gideon, not King Saul, whose military forces are reduced to a small number according to how they drink from the river. You will find no such story in the Bible concerning King Saul.

Second, according to the Bible, this event took place prior to the fight against the Medianites. But according to the Koran, this event precedes a battle with Goliath. But in the Bible, Goliath was a Philistine, a group distinct from the Medianites.

Third, according to the Koran, after crossing the river, the Israelites muster their courage, saying, "Many a small band has, by God's grace, vanquished a mighty army. God is with those who endure with fortitude." And then, according to the Koran, the Israelites charge and route Goliath and his armies. But according to the Bible, the Israelites first run away in fear of Goliath and not until after David has miraculously killed Goliath do the Israelites find the courage to pursue the Philistines and defeat them.

It is clear that here again the Koran contradicts the Biblical account by combining two separate stories into one in a way that is incompatible with either story as told in the Bible. So, we find that the Koran contradicts the Bible, which it has claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Zacharias Made Mute

According to the Koran, Zacharias, the Father of John the Baptist, was made mute for 3 days and 3 nights as a sign the he would have a son, as God promised.

Thereupon Zacharias prayed to his Lord, saying: 'Lord grant me of Your own grace upright descendants. You hear all prayers.' And as he stood praying in the Shrine, the angels called out to him, saying: 'God bids you rejoice in the birth of John, whom shall confirm the Word of God. He shall be princely and chaste, a prophet and a righteous man.' 'Lord,' said Zacharias, 'how shall I have a son when I am now overtaken by old age and my wife is barren?' 'Such is the will of God,' He replied. 'He does what He pleases.' 'Lord,' said he, 'vouchsafe me a sign.' 'For three days and three nights,' He replied, 'you shall not speak to any man except by signs. Remember your Lord always; give glory to Him morning and evening.' (Koran, p. 46, 3:37, 4th Para. - 3:40, 4th Para.)

But according to the Bible, Zacharias was made deaf and mute for the entire duration of his wife's pregnancy, and was restored to hearing and speech only after John was born.

Luke 1:13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John...20 And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season...57 Now Elisabeth's full time came that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son. 59 And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. 60 And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John. 61 And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. 62 And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. 63 And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all. 64 And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, and praised God.

So, again on this point, the Koran and the Bible disagree. According to the Koran, Zacharias was mute for only 3 days. But according to the Bible, Zacharias was mute for about nine months. The Koran again contradicts the Bible, which it has claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Moses as the Uncle of Jesus

Although Muslim apologists deny it, the Koran clearly depicts Moses as the brother of Jesus' mother Mary, which makes Moses Jesus' uncle. This of course, is another confusion of characters and misunderstanding of history, similar to what we saw in the example above with King Saul and Gideon. In this case, the Jesus' mother Mary is confused with Moses' sister Miriam.

God exalted Adam and Noah, Abraham's descendants and the descendants of 'Imran (1) above the nations. They were all the offspring of one another. God hears all and knows all. Remember the words of 'Imran's (2) wife. 'Lord,' she said, 'I dedicate to Your service that which is in my womb. Accept it from me. You alone hear all and know all.' And when she was delivered of the child, she said, 'Lord, I have given birth to a daughter' - God well knew of what she was delivered: the male is not like the female - 'and have called her Mary. Protect her and all her descendants from Satan, the Accursed One.' (p. 45, 3:29, 5th Para. - p. 46, 3:36.) Footnote 1: Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron. Footnote 2: 'Imram is also the name given in the Koran to Mary's father.

NOTE: The 2 footnotes at the bottom of the passage above are included by Koran translator N.J. Dawood.

In the quote above, we can see that this story begins with Imran, whose wife bares him a daughter named Mary. As the story continues over the next few pages, we continue to follow this story of Imran's daughter Mary. We soon see this same Mary talking with Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist. The paragraph in the previous segment about Zacharias being made mute as a sign of John's birth is an excerpt from this story of Mary.

Her Lord graciously accepted her. He made her grow a goodly child and entrusted her to the care of Zacharias. Whenever Zacharias visited her in the Shrine he found that she had food with her. 'Mary,' he said, 'where is this food from?' 'It is from God,' she answered. 'God gives without measure to whom He will.' (Koran, p. 46, 3:37, 1st Para. - 3rd Para.)

So, as we can start to see from the quote above, Imran's daughter Mary lives at the same time as John the Baptist's father Zacharias. As, we continue to follow along with the Koran's account of Mary, we find out more about her.

And remember the angels' words to Mary. They said: 'God has chosen you. He has made you pure and exalted you above womankind. Mary, be obedient to your Lord; bow down and worship with the worshippers.' This is an account of a divine secret. We reveal it to you. You were not present when they cast lots to see which them should have charge of Mary; nor were you present when the argued about her. The angels said to Mary: 'God bids you rejoice in a Word from Him. His name is the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary. He shall be noble in the world and in this world to come, and shall be one of those who are favoured. He shall preach to men in his cradle and in the prime of manhood, and shall lead a righteous life.' 'Lord,' she said, 'how can I bear a child when no man has touched me?' (Koran, p. 46, 3:40, 5th Para. - p. 47, 3:51, 3rd Para.)

In this paragraph we find out the very significant information that according to the Koran Imran's daughter Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ. Notice that the Koran's account of the angel's visit to Mary is quite similar, although not identical, to the account in Luke.

Luke 1:30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. 31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. 32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: 33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?

Notice that the account in Luke describes Jesus as the "Son of the Highest" while the Koran omits this very significant statement from its version of the story. This will become more significant later on in this section when we discuss the contradiction between the Bible and the Koran regarding Jesus as the Son of God.

The Koran repeats that Mary is Imran's daughter in another passage as well.

And in Mary, 'Imran's daughter, who preserved her chastity and into whose womb We breathed Our spirit; who put her trust in the words of her Lord and His scriptures, and was truly devout. (Koran, p. 399, 66:12.)

Now that we have established that according to the Koran, Jesus' mother Mary was the daughter of Imran, we will examine the problem that this assertion creates.

Numbers 26:59 And the name of Amram's wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom her mother bare to Levi in Egypt: and she bare unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister.

There are several things to point out from Numbers 26. First, Moses' sister's name is Miriam. In the New Testament, the name Mary is simply the Greek version of this Hebrew name. So Moses' sister and Jesus' mother have the same name according to the Bible, even though they lived over twelve hundred years apart.

Second, notice that Moses' and Miriam's father is named Amram, which is simply an alternate spelling for the name Imran, who is Mary's father according to the Koran. As we have already seen, Koran translator N.J. Dawood attests to this when he states in a footnote that the phrase "the descendants of 'Imran (1)" is a reference to "Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron." This is the first indication from the Koran that Jesus' mother Mary was mistakenly thought to be Moses' sister. But the indications of this error are even clearer.

Carrying the child, she came to her people, who said to her: 'Mary, this is indeed a strange thing! Sister of Aaron, your father was never a whore-monger, nor was your mother a harlot.' She made a sign to them, pointing to the child. But they replied: 'How can we speak with a baby in the cradle?' Whereupon he spoke and said: 'I am the servant of God. He has given me the Book and ordained me a prophet. His blessing is upon me wherever I go, and He has exhorted me to be steadfast in prayer and to give alms as long as I shall live. He has exhorted me to honour my mother and has purged me of vanity and wickedness. Blessed was I on the day I was born, and blessed I shall be on the day of my death and on the day I shall be raised to life.' Such was Jesus the son of Mary. That is the whole truth, which they still doubt. God forbid that He Himself should beget a son! (Koran, p. 215, 19:22, 3rd Para. - p. 216, 19:29, 5th Para.)

Notice again from the above paragraph that the Koran specifically denies that Jesus is God's Son. This will become more important later on in this section.

And notice also that not only does the Koran give Mary's father the same name as Moses' father but the Koran also refers to Mary specifically as "sister of Aaron." It then goes on to state that this Mary who was "sister of Aaron" was the mother of Jesus. In summary, we have the fact that according to the Bible Moses and Aaron have a sister named Mary (Miriam) and all 3 are the children of a man named Amram. And we also have the fact that in the Koran, Jesus' mother Mary is said to be the daughter of Imran (an alternate spelling of Amram) and the sister of Aaron. This amounts to a very clear error in which the Koran mistakenly makes Moses into Jesus' uncle despite the 12 centuries separating the two. On this point, the Koran is not only in contradiction of the Judeo-Christian scriptures, but with a rather elementary understanding of history as well.

As a footnote, Muslim apologists try to remedy this obvious error in the Koran with the ad hoc suggestion that the phrase "sister of Aaron" is simply a proverbial saying rather than a rather standard description of whose sister Mary was. But the fact that Moses and Mary both have fathers with the same name disproves this absurd suggestion. The result is that the error and contradiction remains. And again we see that The Koran does, in fact, contradict the Bible, which it has claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Moses and Aaron Told To Build Houses

Although the Koran does attest in some places that Moses was sent to lead the people of Israel out of Egypt, in one passage, the Koran describes Moses as having the exact opposite mission.

We revealed Our will to Moses and his brother, saying: 'Build houses in Egypt for your people and make your homes places of worship. Conduct prayers and give good tidings to the faithful.' (Koran, p. 154, 10:80, 5th Para.)

In the passage above, the Koran has God saying that He commanded Moses and Aaron to build houses for the Israelites in Egypt. This command would have Moses and Aaron and all of the Israelites staying in Egypt rather than leaving in a mass exodus.

Perhaps to make the accounts compatible, some could suggest that God at first might have commanded Moses to stay in Egypt and only later changed his mind and decided to have them leave instead. But this is impossible.

Exodus 3:1 Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb. 2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. 3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. 4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I...9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. 10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt.

The problem is that according to the Biblical account in Exodus, it is God's plan to have Moses lead the Israelites out of Egypt from the very first moment that he speaks to Moses. This means that according to the Biblical account, there is no time during which God intended or instructed Moses and Aaron to "build houses" for the Israelites in Egypt as the Koran claims. So, on this point, the Koran contradicts the Bible, which it has claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Aaron and the Golden Calf

Throughout the Koran from cover to cover, Moses' brother Aaron is repeatedly referred to as "Aaron." Here are but a few examples.

We gave him Isaac and Jacob and guided both as We had guided Noah before them. Among his descendents were David and Solomon, Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron (thus do we reward the righteous); Zacharias and John, Jesus and Elias (all were upright men); and Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot. (Koran, p. 100, 6:80, 3rd Para. - 6:91, 1st Para.)

In the Book tell also of Moses, who was a chosen man, an apostle, and a prophet. We called out to him from the right side of the Mountain, and when he came near We communed with him in secret. We gave him, of Our mercy, his brother Aaron, himself a prophet. (Koran, p. 217, 19:46, 4th Para. - 5th Para.)

The sorcerers prostrated themselves, crying: 'We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.' (Koran, p. 223, 20:67, 1st Para. - 4th Para.)

We showed Moses and Aaron the distinction between right and wrong, and gave them a light and an admonition for righteous men: (Koran, p. 230, 21:47, 2nd Para. - 3rd Para.)

Then We sent Moses and his brother Aaron, with Our signs and with clear authority, to Pharaoh and his nobles. (Koran, p. 242, 23:37, 5th Para. - 23:49, 1st Para.)

We gave the Book to Moses and assigned to him his brother Aaron as a helper. We sent them to those who had denied Our signs, and utterly destroyed them. (Koran, p. 255, 25:32, 3rd Para. - 5th Para.)

'Lord,' said Moses, 'I have killed one of their number and fear that they will slay me. Aaron my brother is more fluent of tongue than I; send him with me that he may help me and confirm my words, for I fear they will reject me.' He replied: 'We will strengthen your arm with your brother, and will bestow such power on you both, that none shall harm you. Set forth, with Our signs. (Koran, p. 274, 28:33, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

We showed favour to Moses and Aaron and delivered them, with all their people, from the mighty scourge. We succoured them, and they became victorious. We gave the Glorious Book and guided them to the straight path. We bestowed on them the praise of later generations: 'Peace be on Moses and Aaron!' (Koran, p. 315, 37:105, 4th Para.)

In the book of Exodus, one of the most infamous events surrounding Moses' brother Aaron is his building of the golden calf idol for the people of Israel after they left Egypt.

Exodus 32:1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. 2 And Aaron said unto them, Break off the golden earrings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me. 3 And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. 4 And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. 5 And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, To morrow is a feast to the LORD. 35 And the LORD plagued the people, because they made the calf, which Aaron made.

When this story is recounted in the Koran, however, Aaron is not mentioned at all. Instead, according to the Koran the entire event is instigated by a man known simply as "the Samiri."

God said: 'We proved your people in your absence, but the Samiri has led them astray.' Angry and sorrowful, Moses went back to them. 'My people,' he said, you're your Lord not make you a gracious promise? Did my absence seem too long to you, or was it to incur your Lord's anger that you failed me?' They replied: 'We did not fail you of our own free will. We were made to carry the people's trinkets and throw them into the fire. The Samiri threw likewise, and forged a calf for them, an image with a hollow sound. "This," they said, "is your god and the god of Moses whom he has forgotten." (Koran, p. 224, 20:82, 3rd Para. - 5th Para.)

We should mention at this point that nowhere in the Koran is Aaron ever referred to as or even remotely associated with the term "Samiri." In fact, this is the only time the term "Samiri" appears in the Koran. So, while the Koran repeatedly mentions the name of Aaron as Moses brother, when recounting this most infamous event in the life of Aaron, in which Aaron forges an idol for the people of Israel, the Koran has names someone else other than Aaron as responsible for this act. Here again, we find the Koran in contradiction of the Bible, which it has claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Pharaoh and Haman

In the Bible, Moses is opposed by Pharaoh in Egypt before the Exodus and by an Israelite named Korah after the Exodus. The beginning of the account with Pharaoh is found in Exodus 4. And the account of Korah is found in Numbers 16.

Exodus 5:1 And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness. 2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go. 3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto the LORD our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword.

Numbers 16:1 Now Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, and Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Peleth, sons of Reuben, took men: 2 And they rose up before Moses, with certain of the children of Israel, two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, famous in the congregation, men of renown...4 And when Moses heard it, he fell upon his face...28 And Moses said, Hereby ye shall know that the LORD hath sent me to do all these works; for I have not done them of mine own mind...30 But if the LORD make a new thing, and the earth open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that appertain unto them, and they go down quick into the pit; then ye shall understand that these men have provoked the LORD...32 And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up, and their houses, and all the men that appertained unto Korah, and all their goods.

So, in the Bible, both Pharaoh and Korah are men who opposed Moses. Likewise, the Koran also lists Pharaoh and Korah as Moses' opponents. However, side by side with Pharaoh and Korah, the Koran also lists Haman as an opponent of Moses. Specifically, according to the Koran, Haman is one of Pharaoh's subordinates who assists Pharaoh as Pharaoh opposes Moses.

These are the verses of the Glorious Book. In all truth We shall recount to you the tale of Moses and Pharaoh for the instruction of the faithful. Now Pharaoh made himself a tyrant in the land...For Pharaoh, Haman, and their warriors were sinners all. (Koran, p. 271, 28:1 - 28:8, 2nd Para.)

'Nobles,' said Pharaoh, 'you have no other god that I know of except myself. Make me, Haman, bricks of clay, and build for me a tower that I may climb to the god of Moses. I am convinced that he is lying.' (Koran, p. 274, 28:33, 5th Para.)

And Korah, Pharaoh, and Haman! Moses came to them with veritable signs, but they behaved arrogantly in the land, powerless though they were to escape Us: and in their sinfulness, one and all, We smote them. (Koran, p. 281, 29:33, 3rd Para. - 6th Para.)

We sent forth Moses with Our signs and with clear authority to Pharaoh, Haman, and Korah. But they said: 'A sorcerer, a teller of lies.' (Koran, p. 329, 40:18, 2nd Para. - p. 330, 40:26.)

Thus God seals up the heart of every scornful tyrant.' Pharaoh said to Haman: 'Build me a tower that I may reach the highways - the very highways - of the heavens, and look upon the god of Moses. I am convinced that he is lying.' Thus was Pharaoh seduced by his foul deeds and was turned away from the right path. Pharaoh's cunning led only to perdition. (Koran, p. 330, 40:26, 3rd Para. - p. 331, 40:45)

According to the Koran, Haman was with Pharaoh and assisted Pharaoh in his opposition to Moses. The problem is that there is no record of a "Haman" associated with Pharaoh anywhere in the entire Biblical record of Moses and Pharaoh. Instead, in the Bible, Haman is found in the book of Esther where he is indeed a subordinate of the king. However, Haman is the subordinate of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes) of Persia. And in the book of Esther, Haman is an enemy of God, but his main opposition is not Moses but a Jewish man named Mordecai, the cousin and adoptive father of Queen Esther (Esther 2:7). And the entire story of Mordecai and Haman occurs in the fifth century B.C., which is around eight hundred years after Moses.

So, here again the Koran has confused two separate Biblical stories, as we have already seen in the case of Saul, Gideon, and Goliath as well as the case of Moses' sister Miriam and Jesus' mother Mary. This is yet another instance where the Koran is in conflict with the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which it has claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

David and the Man with One Sheep

The Koran recounts a story about King David in which two litigants climb over a wall to test the King.

Have you heard the story of the two litigants who entered his chamber by climbing over the wall? When they went in to David and saw that he was alarmed, they said: 'Have no fear. We are two litigants, one of whom has wronged the other. Judge rightly between us and do not be unjust; guide us to the right path.' 'My brother here has ninety-nine ewes, but I have only one ewe. He demanded that I should entrust it to him, and got the better of me in the dispute.' David replied: 'He has certainly wronged you in seeking to add your ewe to his flock. Many partners are unjust to one another; but not so those that have faith and do good works, and they are few indeed.' David realized that We were only testing him. He sought forgiveness of his Lord and fell down on his knees. We forgave him his sins, and in the world to come he shall be honoured and well received. (Koran, p. 318, 38:10, 4th Para. - 38:21, 4th Para.)

This story in the Koran is similar, but not identical to a famous account in the Bible concerning King David and his sin with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah.

2 Samuel 11:1 And the LORD sent Nathan unto David. And he came unto him, and said unto him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor. 2 The rich man had exceeding many flocks and herds: 3 But the poor man had nothing, save one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own meat, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was unto him as a daughter. 4 And there came a traveller unto the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to dress for the wayfaring man that was come unto him; but took the poor man's lamb, and dressed it for the man that was come to him. 5 And David's anger was greatly kindled against the man; and he said to Nathan, As the LORD liveth, the man that hath done this thing shall surely die: 6 And he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity. 7 And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul; 8 And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things. 9 Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of the LORD, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of Ammon.

In this story again, the Koran has confused the facts in a way that conflicts with the Biblical account. There are several details that are contradictory between these accounts.

First, in the Koran, there are 2 litigants, which climb the wall to test King David. In the Bible, there aren't 2 litigants at all and no one climbs a wall to test the King. Instead, it is the Prophet Nathan who comes before the King in the same normal fashion that he has come before David in the past.

Second, in the Koran, one of the litigants talking to David is said to be the owner of the many sheep and the other litigant is said to be the owner of the one sheep. But in the Biblical account, there is no one with the Prophet Nathan and no one is there playing the part of the litigants or sheep-owners.

Third, in the Koran, the owner of the many sheep is said to "to add" the one "ewe to his flock." But in the Bible, the owner of the many sheep doesn't add the additional sheep to his flock. Instead, he uses the other man's sheep as a feast to feed a traveling guest. In the Koran account, there is no traveling guest.

Fourth, in the Koran, David realizes he is being tested. But in the Bible, David does not realize anything. Instead, the Prophet Nathan has to explain to David that this is a parable concerning David's sin with Bethsheba.

In short, this is another account where the Koran has confused the details of Judeo-Christians scriptures in a way that conflicts with the Judeo-Christian account, which the Koran claims is a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Joseph and Pharaoh's Wife

The Koran also recounts the story of Joseph and his master's wife.

And when her husband saw that Joseph's shirt was rent from behind, he said to her: 'This is but one of your tricks. Your cunning is great indeed! Joseph, say no more about this. Woman, ask pardon for your sin. You have assuredly done wrong.' In the city, women are saying: 'The Prince's wife has sought to seduce her servant. She has conceived a passion for him. We can see that she has clearly gone astray.' When she heard of their intrigues, she invited them to a banquet prepared at her house. To each she gave a knife, and ordered Joseph to present himself before them. When they saw him, they were amazed at him and cut their hands, exclaiming: 'God preserve us! This is no mortal, but a gracious angel.' 'This is he,' she said, 'on whose account you blamed me. I attempted to seduce him, but he was unyielding. If he declines to do my bidding, he shall be thrown into prison and shall be held in scorn.' 'Lord,' said Joseph, 'sooner would I go to prison than give in to their advances. Shield me from their cunning, or I shall yield to them and lapse into folly.' His Lord answered his prayer and warded off their wiles from him. He hears all and knows all. Yet, for all the evidence they had seen, they thought it right to jail him for a time. (Koran, p. 167, 12:28, 1st Para. - p. 168, 12:34, 2nd Para.)

"Now the truth must come to light,' said the Prince's wife, 'It was I who attempted to seduce him. He has told the truth.' 'From this,' said Joseph, 'my lord will know that I did not betray him in his absence, and that God does not guide the mischief of the treacherous. Not that I claim to be free from sin: man's soul is prone to evil, except his to whom my Lord has shown mercy. My Lord is forgiving and merciful.' The king said: 'Bring him before me. I will choose him for my own.' (Koran, p. 170, 12:15 3rd Para. - 12:52, 2nd Para.)

Below is the Biblical account of this story.

Genesis 39:1 And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought him down thither...7 And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, Lie with me...8 But he refused, and said unto his master's wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath to my hand...12 And she caught him by his garment, saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out...16 And she laid up his garment by her, until his lord came home. 17 And she spake unto him according to these words, saying, The Hebrew servant, which thou hast brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me: 18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled out. 19 And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto him, saying, After this manner did thy servant to me; that his wrath was kindled. 20 And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison.

Once again, the Koran's version of this story gives conflicting details to the Judeo-Christian scripture. In the Koran, the woman is the wife of the Prince. But in the Bible, she is the wife of one of Pharaoh's officers, a man named Potiphar who was the captain of the guard. In the Koran, the Prince examines the evidence and determines that his wife is lying and that Joseph is innocent of his wife's accusations. But in the Bible, Potiphar is enraged at Joseph when his wife makes the accusation at which point Potiphar has Joseph throne into prison.

Additionally, the Koran's claim that Joseph was found innocent based upon the evidence effectively explains away any conceivable reason for Joseph to be thrown into prison. As the Koran states, "Yet, for all the evidence they had seen, they thought it right to jail him for a time." This makes no sense. According to the Koran, the Prince declares that his wife is lying and Joseph is innocent and then decides to throw Joseph into prison. Furthermore, according to the Koran, the public also knows that Joseph is innocent and that the Prince's wife is to blame. So, why would Joseph be put in prison when everyone knows that he is innocent?

Although this is speculation, its almost as if Mohammed was recounting this story in such a way that Joseph is acquitted and then suddenly remembered at the end that Joseph is supposed to go to prison according to the Judeo-Christian scriptures. And so, the idea of Joseph being thrown in prison appears almost as an inexplicable footnote at the end of story in which Joseph is declared innocent based upon the evidence.

Regardless of why the Koran's story deviates, the fact is that the Koran's account does conflict with the Judeo-Christian scriptures regarding the story of Joseph and the Egyptian's wife and so, the Koran again is in conflict with the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which it has claimed are reliable revelations of God's Word.

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