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Basic Worldview:
104 Why Christianity?

Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 2)

Evidentiary Religions - Islam Introduction
Koran and Judeo-Christian Apostles
Koran and Judeo-Christian Scriptures
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 1)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 2)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 3)
Koran Contradicts Judeo-Christianity (Part 4)
Another Gospel and Explaining the Success of Islam (P. 1)
Explaining the Success of Islam (Part 2)
Explaining the Success of Islam (Part 3)
Islam Conclusions

| Section 1 | Section 2 | Section 3

Sarah's Response to Having a Son

The Koran recounts another famous story regarding the announcement to Abraham that he would have a son named Isaac.

Have you heard the story of Abraham's honoured guests? They went in to him and said: 'Peace!' 'Peace!' he answered and, seeing that they were strangers, betook himself to his household and returned with a fattened calf. He placed it before them, saying: 'Will you not eat?' He grew afraid of them, but they said, 'Have no fear,' and told him he was to have a son endowed with knowledge. His wife came crying and beating her face. 'Surely I am a barren old woman,' she said. 'Such is the will of your Lord,' they replied. 'He is the Wise One, the All-knowing.' (Koran, p. 368, 51:18, 4th Para. - 51:31, 3rd Para.)

Notice that in the Koran's version, Abraham's wife Sarah is said to cry and beat her face when she overhears the message that she will bear a child in her old age. Below is the Bible's account of this same event.

Genesis 18:1 And the LORD appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day; 2 And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him: and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground...7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetcht a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man; and he hasted to dress it...10 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the tent door, which was behind him. 11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women. 12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also? 13 And the LORD said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old? 14 Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son. 15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was afraid. And he said, Nay; but thou didst laugh.

The clear contradiction here is that in the Koran, Abraham's wife is said to cry and beat her face when she hears the news that she will have a son. But in the Bible, Sarah's reaction is the opposite. Instead of crying and beating her face, she laughs. In fact, the very name Isaac (Strong's No. 03327) means "laughs." By contradicting this point the Koran contradicts the very name Isaac. This is yet another instance in which the Koran is in disagreement with the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which it claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Divorce and Remarriage

The Koran's teaching regarding divorce can be found in the following passages.

If you wish to replace one wife with another, do not take from her the dowry you have given her even if it be a talent of gold. That would be improper and grossly unjust; for how can you take it back when you have lain with each other and entered into a firm contract? You shall not marry the women whom your fathers married: all previous such marriages excepted. That was an evil practice, indecent and abominable. (Koran, p. 63, 4:20, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

In the Koran, to divorce your wife and replace her with someone new is permissible as long as certain guidelines are followed. If a man divorces his wife to marry someone else, he can do so but he must not take back the dowry he gave her. But in the New Testament, Jesus Christ expressly forbids the practice of divorcing your wife in order to replace her with someone new.

Matthew 5:31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: 32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.

Matthew 19:1 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan...9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.

Mark 10:10 And in the house his disciples asked him again of the same matter. 11 And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her. 12 And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery.

Luke 16:18 Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery.

In all four of the passages above, Jesus is clearly trying to bring to an end the practice of divorcing your wife in order to marry someone new. In order to end this practice, Jesus proclaims that anyone who divorces their current spouse and marries someone new is committing adultery. Here the Koran directly contradicts the teaching of Christ for the Koran permits a man "to replace one wife with another" while Christ explicitly opposes such an act.

But that isn't all. Notice that Jesus also prohibits a man from marrying someone new by declaring that second marriage is adultery. The Koran differs on this point as well.

If a man divorces his wife, he cannot remarry her until she has wedded another man and been divorced by him; in which case it shall be no offence for either of them to return to the other, if they think that they can keep with the bounds set by God. (Koran, p. 34, 2:229, 2nd Para. - 2:230.)

While Jesus clearly declares that any divorced woman who marries another man is committing adultery, the Koran actually requires any divorced woman to marry another man before she can remarry her original husband. In this way, the Koran actually requires adultery to occur, when Jesus clearly sought to keep original marriages together and free from adultery. This constitutes another clear contradiction between the Koran and the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which the Koran claims to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

(For more information on the New Testament teaching regarding divorce, please see our 3-Part article series entitled, "Divorce and Remarriage in the Teaching of Christ.")

Fighting and War

One of the more striking distinctions between the Koran and Christian teaching is their respective teachings concerning participation in violence and war.

The New Testament, however, prohibits Christians from engaging in violence, even as a means of self-defense and regardless of which party is the aggressor.

Matthew 5:38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: 39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.

Matthew 26:51 And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out [his] hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. 52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. 53 Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? 54 But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?

John 18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight (75), that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

And not only did the prohibition of violence originate in these quotes from Jesus Christ, but the early Church of the first few centuries uniformly interpreted these passages as prohibiting violence as well, including such famous early Christian writers as Ignatius, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Athenogaras, Cyprian, and Lactantius. All of these Christians lived before the time of Constantine when the Church came into union with the Roman state and began engaging in warfare. But the change of practice, which emerged as a result of Constantine, does not change the fact that the Christians of the first 3 centuries were all strict pacifists in accordance with the teachings of Christ Jesus. (For more information about Christian teaching on warfare and violence, please visit our 2-part article series entitled, "Christianity and War.")

Because of Christ's statements forbidding violent resistance even for justice's sake, The early Church uniformly chose to suffer and die rather than raise arms against their aggressors. The Koran, on the other hand, clearly requires war and even condemns Muslims who refuse to participate in war.

Slay them wherever you find them...Fight against them until idolatry is no more and God's religion reigns supreme. But if they desist, fight none except the evil-doers. A sacred month for a sacred month: sacred things too are subject to retaliation. If anyone attacks you, attack him as he attacked you. Have fear of God, and know that God is with the righteous. (Koran, p. 29, 2:189, 3rd Para. - 2:193.)

Prophet, rouse the faithful to arms. (Koran, p. 131, 8:65, 1st Para.)

Whether unarmed or well-equipped, march on and fight for the cause of God, with your wealth and with your persons. This will be best for you, if you but knew it. (Koran, p. 137, 9:40, 2nd Para.)

Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites and deal rigorously with them. Hell shall be their home: an evil fate. (Koran, p. 141, 9:73, 1st Para.)

Believers, make war on the infidels who dwell around you. Deal firmly with them. Know that God is with the righteous. (Koran, p. 146, 9:121, 3rd Para.)

Prophet, make war on the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and deal sternly with them. Hell shall be their home, evil their fate. (Koran, p. 399, 66:7, 3rd Para.)

Those that believe in God and the Last Day will not beg you to exempt them from fighting with their wealth and with their persons. God best knows the righteous. Only those who seek exemption who disbelieve in God and the Last Day, and whose hearts are filled with doubt. Because they doubt, they waver. (Koran, p. 138, 9:43, 2nd Para.)

Some of them will say: 'Give us leave to stay behind, and do not expose us to temptation.' Surely they have already succumbed to temptation. Hell shall engulf the unbelievers. (Koran, p. 138, 9:48, 2nd Para.)

The fact that the Koran teaches militant conquest while Christian teaching required pacifism and forbid violence is yet another clear contradiction between the Koran and Judeo-Christian scriptures that the Koran claims are reliable revelations of God's Word.

Swearing Oaths

Although some may not be familiar with it, Jesus Christ expressly prohibits swearing oaths as a means to affirm our words.

Matthew 5:34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: 35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

According to Jesus we should not swear by heaven, by earth, by Jerusalem, or by our heads. In fact, we should not swear at all. Instead, Jesus says that we should simply let our "yes" be "yes" and our "no" be "no." He goes on to say that any attempts to affirm our statements by swearing "cometh of evil."

It is on this note that another problem arises with the Koran. While Jesus prohibits affirming our words by swearing, Mohammed goes to great lengths to affirm the truthfulness of his words through swearing by heaven and earth and nearly everything in between. Consider the long list of examples below. Notice that no less than 6 times does Mohammed swear that he is not mad or in error but his words in the Koran are the truth from God. This is clearly another point when the Koran contradicts the Judeo-Christian scriptures, which it has claimed to be reliable revelations of God's Word.

I swear by the Wise Koran that you are sent upon a straight path. This is revealed by the Mighty One, the Merciful, so that you may forewarn a nation who, because their fathers were not warned before them, live in heedlessness. (Koran, p. 308, 36:1, 1st Para. - p. 309, 36:7.)

I swear by those who range themselves in ranks, by those who cast out demons, and by those who recite the Word, that your God is One: the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them: the Lord of the Eastern Regions. (Koran, p. 312, 37:1.)

By the Koran, with all its precepts! Surely the unbelievers are imbued with arrogance and perverseness. (Koran, p. 317, 38:1)

By the Glorious Book! We have revealed the Koran in the Arabic tongue that you may understand its meaning. It is a transcript of the eternal book in Our Keeping, sublime, and full of wisdom. (Koran, p. 343, 43:1, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

By the Glorious Book, We revealed it on a blessed night to give warning; on a night when every precept was made plain as a commandment from Ourself. We sent it down as a blessing from your Lord. He hears all and knows all. He is the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them. (Mark this, if you are true believers.) There is no god but Him. He ordains life and death. He is your God and the God of your forefathers. Yet they divert themselves with doubts. (Koran, p. 348, 44:1, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

By the Glorious Koran! They marvel that a prophet of their own has arisen amongst them. The unbelievers say: 'This is indeed a strange thing. When we are dead and turn to dust...? Such a return is most improbable!' (Koran, p. 365, 50:1, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

By the dust-scattering winds and the heavily-laden clouds; by the swift-gliding ships, and by the angels who deal out blessings to mankind; that which you are promised shall be fulfilled, and the Last Judgment shall surely come to pass! By the heaven with its starry highways, you contradict yourselves! None but the perverse turn away from the true faith. Perish the liars, who dwell in darkness and are heedless of the life to come! (Koran, p. 367, 51:1, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

By the Mountain, and by the Scripture penned on unrolled parchment; by the Visited House, the Lofty Vault, and the swelling sea, your Lord's punishment shall surely come to pass! No power shall ward it off. (Koran, p. 369, 52:1.)

By the declining star, your compatriot is not in error, nor is he deceived! He does not speak out of his own fancy. This is an inspired revelation. He is taught by one who is powerful and mighty. (Koran, p. 371, 53:1 - p. 372, 53:7, 4th Para.)

I swear by the shelter of the stars (a mighty oath, if you but knew it) that this is a glorious Koran, safeguarded in a book which none may touch except the purified; a revelation from the Lord of the Universe. Would you scorn a scripture such as this, and earn your daily bread denying it? (Koran, p. 380, 56:74, 2nd Para. - 3rd Para.)

By the Pen, and what they write, you are not mad: thanks to the favour of your Lord! A lasting recompense awaits you, for yours is a sublime nature. You shall before long see - as they will see - which of you is mad. (Koran, p. 401, 68:1.)

I swear by all that you can see, and all that is hidden from your view, that this is the utterance of a noble messenger. It is no poet's speech: scant is your faith! It is no soothsayers divination: how little you reflect! It is a revelation from the Lord of the Universe. (Koran, p. 404, 69:19, 4th Para. - p. 405, 69:52.)

I swear by the Lord of the East and of the West that We have the power to replace them by others better than they: nothing can hinder us from so doing. Let them paddle, let them play until they face the day they are promised; the day when they shall rush forward from their graves, like men rallying to a standard, with downcast eyes and countenances distorted with shame. Such is the day they are promised. (Koran, p. 406, 70:38, 4th Para. - 70:44, 2nd Para.)

I swear by the Day of Resurrection, and by the self-reproaching soul! (Koran, p. 412, 75:1.)

I swear by the turning planets, and by the stars that rise and set; by the night, when it descends, and the first breath of morning: this is the word of a gracious and mighty messenger, held in honour by the Lord of the Throne, obeyed in heaven, faithful to his trust. (Koran, p. 419, 81:15 - 81:21.)

By the heaven, and by the nightly visitant! Would that you knew what the nightly visitant is! It is the star of piercing brightness. (Koran, p. 423, 86:1, 1st Para. - 3rd Para.)

By the heaven with is recurring cycles, and by the earth, ever bursting with new growth; this is a discerning utterance, no flippant jest. (Koran, p. 423, 86:11.)

By the Dawn and the Ten Nights; by that which is dual and that which is single; by the night, when it comes! (Koran, p. 425, 89:1.)

I swear by this city (and you are a resident of this city), by the begetter and all whom he begot: We created man to try him with afflictions. (Koran, p. 426, 90:1.)

By the sun and his midday brightness; by the moon, which rises after him; by the day, which reveals his splendour; by the night, which veils him! By the heaven and Him that built it; by the earth and Him that spread it; by the soul and Him that moulded it and inspired it with knowledge of sin and piety; blessed shall be the man who has kept it pure, and ruined he that has corrupted it! (Koran, p. 426, 91:1 - p. 427, 91:6.)

By the night, when she lets fall her darkness, and by the radiant day! By Him that created the male and the female, your endeavors have varied ends! (Koran, p. 427, 92:1.)

By the light of the day, and by the dark of the night, your Lord has not forsaken you, nor does He abhor you. (Koran, p. 428, 93:1.)

By the Fig, and by the Olive! By Mount Sinai, and by this inviolate city. (Koran, p. 428, 95:1, 1st Para. - 2nd Para.)

By the snorting war steeds, which strike fire with their hoofs as they gallop to the raid at dawn and with a trail of dust cleave a massad army: man is ungrateful to his Lord! To this he himself shall bear witness. (Koran, p. 431, 100:1.)

I swear by the declining day that perdition shall be the lot of man, except for those who have faith and do good works; who exhort each other to justice and to fortitude. (Koran, p. 432, 103:1 - 103:3.)

Marriage in Heaven

One of the most straightforward teachings of Jesus is that those who are counted worthy by God and are resurrected will NOT marry.

Matthew 22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven.

Mark 12:24 And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God? 25 For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.

Luke 20:34 And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage: 35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

On this point, the Koran repeatedly disagrees. But before we view the quotes from the Koran, we need to do some brief vocabulary review. The word "houri" appears in some of the quotes below from the Koran, so it is important to know what it means when we read it.

"Houri - 1. A voluptuous, alluring woman. 2. One of the beautiful virgins of the Koranic paradise." - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Below we have placed a number of quotes on this topic from the Koran in order to demonstrate that there are more than just a few, small verses on this topic. Notice as you read these quotes that not only does the Koran promise that the righteous will be wedded to heavenly virgins, but the Koran also specifically describes the alluring, physical traits possessed by the virgins including their dark eyes and even their "bosoms."

The quotes below clearly establish that on this issue the Koran contradicts the teaching of the Judeo-Christian scripture, which it has itself claimed to be a reliable revelation of God's Word.

Men are tempted by the lure of women and offspring, of hoarded treasures of gold and silver, of splendid horses, cattle, and plantations. These are the enjoyments of this life, but far better is the return of God. Say: 'Shall I tell you of better things than these, with which the righteous shall be rewarded by their Lord? Gardens watered by running streams, where they shall dwell for ever: spouses of perfect chastity:and grace from God.' (Koran, p. 43, 3:14 - p. 44, 3:15.)

As for those that have faith and do good works, We shall admit them to gardens watered by running streams, where, wedded to chaste spouses, they shall abide for ever. To a cool shade We shall admit them. (Koran, p. 67, 4:57.)

But the true servants of God shall be well provided for, feasting on fruit, and honoured in the gardens of delight. Reclining face to face upon soft couches, they shall be served with a goblet at a gushing fountain, white, and delicious to those who drink it. It will neither dull their senses nor befuddle them. They shall sit with bashful, dark-eyed virgins, as chaste as the sheltered eggs of ostriches. (Koran, p. 313, 37:26, 2nd Para. - p. 314, 37:48.)

This is but an admonition. The righteous shall return to a blessed retreat: the gardens of Eden, whose gates shall open wide to receive them. Reclining there with bashful virgins for companions, they will call for abundant fruit and drink. All this shall be yours on the Day of Reckoning; Our gifts can have no end. (Koran, p. 320, 38:44, 4th Para.)

As for the righteous, they shall be lodged in peace together amid gardens and fountains, arrayed in rich silks and fine brocade. Even thus: and We shall wed them to dark-eyed houris. Secure against all ills, they shall call for every kind of fruit; and, having died once, they shall die no more. (Koran, p. 350, 44:43, 2nd Para - 44:59.)

But in fair gardens the righteous shall dwell in bliss, rejoicing in what their Lord will give them. Their Lord will shield them from the scourge of Hell. He will say: 'Eat and drink to your hearts' content. This is the reward of your labours.' They shall recline on couches ranged in rows. To dark-eyed houris We shall wed them. (Koran, p. 370, 52:13, 2nd Para. - 3rd Para.)

They shall recline on couches lined with thick brocade, and within reach will hang the fruits of both gardens. Which of your Lord's blessings would you deny? Therein are bashful virgins whom neither man nor jinnee will have touched before. Which of your Lord's blessings would you deny? Virgins as fair as corals and rubies. Which of your Lord's blessings would you deny? (Koran, p. 376, 55:52, 2nd Para. - 4th Para.)

Such are they that shall be brought near to their Lord in the gardens of delight: a whole multitude from the men of old, but only a few from the latter generations. They shall recline on jeweled couches face to face, and there shall wait on them immortal youths with bowls and ewers and a cup of purest wine (that will neither pain their heads nor take away their reason); with fruits of their own choice and flesh of fowls that they relish. And theirs shall be the dark-eyed houris, chaste as virgin pearls: a guerdon for their deeds. (Koran, p. 378, 56:1, 2nd Para. - p. 379, 56:6, 2nd Para.)

We created the houris and made them virgins, loving companions for those on the right hand: a multitude from the men of old, and a multitude from the latter generations. (Koran, p. 379, 56:27, 2nd Para.)

As for the righteous, they shall surely triumph. Theirs shall be gardens and vineyards, and high-bosomed maidens for companions: a truly overflowing cup. (Koran, p. 417, 78:31.)

Jesus' Predicted "Ahmad"

In the following passage, the Koran depicts Jesus making a prediction that an apostle will come after him by the name of Ahmad.

And of Jesus son of Mary, who said to the Israelites: 'I am sent forth to you from God to confirm the Torah already revealed, and to give news of an apostle that will come after me whose name is Ahmad.' (p. 391, 61:1, 4th Para. - 61:8.)

The name "Ahmad" is taken as a reference to Mohammed since the name Mohammed is a compounded version of the name "Ahmad."

"Muhammad - ETYMOLOGY: Arabic muammad, praised, commendable, passive participle of ammada, to praise highly, from amida, to extol." - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

Now, the New Testament was written in Greek, so the word "Ahmad" does not actually found in the New Testament. However, Muslim apologists have argued that the Greek word "periklutos," which means, "praised one," does appear in the New Testament - or at least it was supposed to. While neither "periklutos" nor a derivative of it appears in the New Testament, the argument is that the Greek word "parakletos," which does appear in the New Testament, is a corrupted or mistaken occurrence of "periklutos." In this way, "periklutos" would have appeared in the New Testament if it were not for an error that somehow recorded "parakletos" in its place.

The definition of "parakletos" is listed below.

3875 parakletos
a root word; TDNT - 5:800,782; n m
AV - comforter 4, advocate 1; 5
1) summoned, called to one's side, esp. called to one's aid
1a) one who pleads another's cause before a judge, a pleader, counsel for defense, legal assistant, an advocate

"Parakletos," (Strong's No. 3875) is translated as "Comforter" in the Gospel of John, which provides the key passage on this issue.

John 14:16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter (3875), that he may abide with you for ever; 17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

John 14:26 But the Comforter (3875), which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

John 15:26 But when the Comforter (3875) is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:

John 16:7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter (3875) will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you...13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.

If the Greek word "parakletos" were to be changed to "periklutos" as Muslim apologists suggest, then these passages might indeed state that God would send a "praised one" after Jesus, which in the Arabic tongue would translate as sending "Ahmad." At this time we should point out that Mohammed's claim that Jesus predicted him requires a specific appeal to words contained in the written Gospels (as seen above). This in turn further demonstrates Mohammed's necessary endorsement of the written Gospels.

But more to the point, there are several problems that prevent us from accepting the Koran's interpretation of these passages.

First, other than the desire to substantiate Mohammed's claim, there is no reason to suspect corruption of the text of these passages. While periklutos and parakletos might look or sound similar, they have two distinct meanings in the Greek. Periklutos may mean "praised one," but parakletos means "advocate" or "comforter." The meanings are quite distinct. And we have no indication either from within the text itself or from external manuscript evidence that indicates that there was a switch from periklutos to parakletos. The result is that this becomes the proverbial circular argument.

These passages are cited as proof of Mohammed's divine mandate. But when we examine the passages themselves, we find nothing in the texts that will support this conclusion unless the reader already believes that Mohammed is Jesus' successor and that the text was supposed to point to him. So, this text provides no objective evidence of Mohammed's claim.

Likewise, the Koran itself demands that the word "periklutos" was originally intended. But there is no evidence to support that claim. The existing evidence is that "periklutos" does not appear in the manuscripts and that "parakletos" does. So, on this point, the Koran is again shown to be in direct disagreement with the Judeo-Christian scriptures with regard to which word appears in these passages.

Second, as can be seen in the passages themselves (quotes above), the Comforter is not left unidentified. Each passage specifically informs us in the immediate context that the Comforter is the Holy Spirit. Even if you interpret the Holy Spirit as Gabriel or some other angel as Muslims might, these passages cannot point to Mohammed, since Mohammed is not the Holy Spirit. The result is that the Koran disagrees with Judeo-Christian scripture with regard to whether or not the Holy Spirit or Mohammed was meant in these passages.

Lastly, we should note that the result of this analysis is that the Koran is left without a specific mention of Mohammed under the name "Ahmad" anywhere in the Judeo-Christian texts, as the Koran claims, which again leaves the Koran in error and in contradiction of the Judeo-Christian Scriptures, which it claims are reliable revelations of God's Word.

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