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Basic Worldview:
104 Why Christianity?

Propositional Religions 5 - Sikhism

Propositional Religions 1 - Deism, Pantheism, and Naturalism
Propositional Religions 2 - Intro, Hinduism, Buddhism
Propositional Religions 3 - Jainism, Taoism
Propositional Religions 4 - Shintoism, Confucianism
Propositional Religions 5 - Sikhism
Propositional Religions 6 - Babism and Baha'ism, Zoroastrianism
Propositional Religions 7 - Neopaganism, Mysticism (Syncretism)
Propositional Religions 8 - Mysticism
Propositional Religions 9 - Mysticism, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism

| Section 1 | Section 2 | Section 3


Sikhism is a religion, which combines the beliefs of Hinduism and Islam. Because of its relationship with Hinduism we could have covered Sikhism earlier in our study. However, its Islamic elements place its inception much later in history than Hinduism. Because of its relatively recent origination we thought it best to cover the ancient Asian religions first.

As we begin our investigation into Sikhism we can see that there is already some difficulty in substantiating its views. This is because Sikhism is merely a combination of two religions, Hinduism, which we have already studied, and Islam, which we will cover later on in our examination of Evidentiary religions.

Because of its dependence upon Islam, a religion, which does attempt to offer evidence to substantiate the accuracy of its claims, we could perhaps categorize Sikhism as an Evidentiary religions. However, Sikhism is only evidentiary in its dependence upon Islamic claims and therefore the evidence Islam offers in support of those claims. Therefore, the evidentiary aspect of Sikhism (its dependence upon Islamic claims and evidence) will be sufficiently covered in our discussion of Islam.

However, there are two reasons why it is appropriate to cover Sikhism in our section on Propositional religions. First, it is an outgrowth of Hinduism, which we have categorized as a Propositional religion. Second, the particular form of Islam that Sikhism is based upon is Islamic Sufism, a mystical sect of Islam. As we have already seen to some extent and as we will cover more later in this study, Propositional religions, including Hinduism tend to be highly mystical. So, for this reason as well, Sikhism seems to fit well with Propositional religion.

This dependence upon Hindu claims is itself damaging to Sikhism. Earlier in our study we rejected Hindu beliefs on the grounds that it does not provide any objective evidence to accept the accuracy of those claims. Since Sikhism accepts the accuracy of these unsubstantiated and unverifiable Hindu truth claims, offering them as its own, Sikhism will have to be rejected in part for the same reason that we rejected its Hindu predecessor and several other religions, which were based upon Hindu teachings.

However, before we reject Sikhism purely for its dependence upon unsubstantiated Hindu claims, we should also take a look at Sikhism's own origination and beliefs in order to determine if it provides any objective evidence on its own in order to substantiate the accuracy of its claims. With that goal in mind we will now look at the origin of Sikhism. We will notice right away that it is a combination of Hinduism and Islam.

"Sikh - an adherent of a monotheistic religion of India founded about 1500 by Guru Nanak and marked by rejection of idolatry and caste." - Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary

"Sikhism - The doctrines and practices of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam." - The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

"Sikhism - The founder and first Sikh guru, the mystic Nanak (c.1469-c.1539), proclaimed monotheism, the provisional nature of organized religion, and direct realization of God through religious exercises and meditation; he opposed idolatry, ritual, an organized priesthood, and the caste system." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Sikhism - religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide some 19 million. Some 300,000 Sikhs live in Britain, and there are smaller communities in North America, Australia, and Singapore. By the late 1990s Sikhism was the world's fifth largest faith and had some 175,000 U.S. adherents and 225,000 in Canada. Sikhism is heterodox, combining the teachings of Bhakti Hinduism and Islamic Sufism." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Guru - Hinduism and Buddhism, spiritual teacher. The guru gives initiation into spiritual practice and instructs disciples, often maintaining a close relationship with them. Among the Sikhs (see Sikhism) the title guru was given to the 10 leaders of the community from Nanak (c.1469-c.1539), founder of Sikhism, to Govind Singh (1666-1708). Govind appointed no successor, declaring that the Granth (the Sikh scriptures) was the true guru." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Sikhism - the religion of an Indian group, combining Hindu and Islamic elements, founded in the Punjab (or PaĖjab) in the late 15th century AD by Guru Nanak. Its members are known as Sikhs." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Sikhs are disciples of their Ten Gurus (religious teachers), beginning with Nanak (1469-1539) and ending with Gobind Singh (1666-1708)." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Sikhism was a historical development of the Hindu Vais nava Bhakti movement—a devotional movement among followers of the god Vishnu —that began in Tamil country and was introduced to the north by Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017-1137). In the 14th and 15th centuries, and after prolonged confrontation with Islam, the movement spread across the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The Bhaktas (devotees) maintained that God, though known by many names and beyond comprehension, is the one and the only reality; that all else is illusion (maya); and that the best way to approach God is through repetition of his name (Sanskrit nama), singing hymns of praise (Punjabi kirtan ), and meditation under the guidance of a Guru. Traditional Hindu religion and society were hierarchically structured; the Bhakti movement opposed the Brahmin hegemony over religious ritual and the caste system." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Kabir (1440-1518), a medieval mystic poet and religious synthesist, was the link between Hindu Bhakti and Islamic Sufism (mysticism), which had gained a large following among Indian Muslims. Sufis (mystics) also believed in singing hymns and in meditation under guidance of a leader. They welcomed non-Muslims in their hospices. Sikhism drew inspiration from both Bhaktas and Sufis." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Nanak was born in 1469 in the village of Rai Bhoi di Talvan di, 40 miles (65 kilometres) from Lahore (in present-day Pakistan). His father was a revenue collector belonging to the Bedi (conversant with the Vedas—the revealed scriptures of Hinduism) subcaste of Ksatriyas (Warriors). Nanak received an education in traditional Hindu lore and in the rudiments of Islam. Early in life he began associating with holy men. For a time he worked as the accountant of the Afghan chieftain at Sultanpur. There a Muslim family servant, Mardana, who was also a rebec player, joined him. Nanak began to compose hymns. Mardana put them to music and the two organized community hymn singing. They organized a canteen where Muslims, as well as Hindus of different castes, could eat together. At Sultanpur, Nanak had his first vision of God, in which he was ordered to preach to mankind. He disappeared while bathing in a stream. When he reappeared on the third day, he proclaimed: 'There is no Hindu, there is no Mussulman.'" - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Speculation on the origin of the cosmos is largely derived from Hindu texts. Sikhs accept the cyclic Hindu theory of samsara —birth, death, and rebirth—and karma, whereby the nature of one's life is determined by his actions in a previous life. Humans are, therefore, equal to all other creatures, except insofar as they are sentient. Human birth is the one opportunity to escape samsara and attain salvation." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Unity of the Godhead is emphasized in Sikhism. Nanak used the Hindu Vedantic concept of om, the mystic syllable, as a symbol of God. To this he added the qualifications of singleness and creativity and thus constructed the symbol ik ("one") om kar ("creator"), which was later given figurative representation as. The opening lines of his morning prayer, Japji, called the Mul Mantra ("Root Belief") of Sikhism, define God as the One, the Truth, the Creator, immortal and omnipresent. God is also formless (nirankar) and beyond human comprehension. Sikh scriptures use many names, both Hindu and Muslim, for God. Nanak's favourite names were Sat-Kartar ("True Creator") and Sat-Nam ("True Name"). Later the word Wah-Guru ("Hail Guru") was added and is now the Sikh synonym for God." - Britannica.com

One of the first things to note about Sikhism is its late date. The recentness of its origin makes it distinct among the religions we have studied so far. We have already seen that Hinduism began in the uncertain past, presumably sometime between 2000-1000 B.C. (approximately 1500 B.C.). Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, and Confucianism all began approximately between the 8th and 5th centuries B.C. We will see later that Islam began in the 600's A.D. Yet, Sikhism, wasn't started until 600 years ago, in the 1400's A.D. This is over 900 years after Islam was proclaimed by Mohammed, almost 3000 years after Hinduism began to be practiced in India, and around 2000 years after the origins of Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, and Confucianism.

As has been and will continue to be the case recent religious movements connect themselves to ancient traditions. Christianity developed as a sect of ancient Judaism. Islam claims to continue and complete the Judeo-Christian tradition. Likewise, Sikhism accepts both the Hindu and Islamic traditions as predecessors.

One problem for this dual dependency is the contradiction that exists between the two parent religions. One example of this would be that the Koran (or Qur'an) is Islam's authoritative scripture.

"Islam - The Qur'an (literally, Reading, or Recitation) is regarded as the Word, or Speech, of God delivered to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. Divided into 114 surahs (chapters) of unequal length, it is the fundamental source of Islamic teaching." - Britannica.com

"Qur'an - The Qur'an is held in high esteem as the ultimate authority in all matters legal and religious and is generally regarded as infallible in all respects." - Britannica.com

"Qur'an - also spelled Koran: holy book of Islam, regarded by believers as the true word of God as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. In its written form it is accepted as the earthly reproduction of an uncreated and eternal heavenly original, according to the general view referred to in the Qur'an itself as 'the well-preserved tablet' (al-lawh al-mahfu z ; Qur'an 85:22)." - Britannica.com

Likewise, as we saw earlier, Hinduism has its own sacred literature.

"Veda - oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the most ancient religious texts in an Indo-European language. The authority of the Veda as stating the essential truths of Hinduism is still accepted to some extent by all Hindus. The Veda is the literature of the Aryans who invaded NW India c.1500 B.C. and pertains to the fire sacrifice that constituted their religion. The Vedic hymns were probably first compiled after a period of about 500 years during which the invaders assimilated various native religious ideas. The end of the Vedic period is about 500 B.C. Tradition ascribes the authorship of the hymns to inspired seer-poets (rishis). - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Hinduism - Hindus disagree about the way (marga) to final emancipation (moksha). Three paths to salvation (variously valued but nonexclusive) are presented in an extremely influential religious text, the Bhagavadgita ("Song of the Lord"; c. 200 BC), according to which it is not acts themselves but the desire for their results that produces karma and thus attachment."- Britannica.com

"Hinduism - The earliest literary source for the history of Hinduism is the Rigveda (Rgveda), the hymns of which were chiefly composed during the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. The religious life reflected in this text is not that of Hinduism but of an earlier sacrificial religious system, generally known as Brahmanism or Vedism, which developed in India among Aryan invaders." - Britannica.com

"Hinduism - The Aryans of the early Vedic period left few material remains, but they left a very important literary record called the Rigveda. Its 1,028 hymns are distributed throughout 10 books, of which the first and the last are the most recent." - Britannica.com

While the Koran does affirm that Jewish and Christian prophets and scripture are from God and God's Word, it does not bestow this status upon any other religion including Hinduism. (It should be stated that later Muslim tradition does extend similar status as a "revealed religion" to Hindus and Zoroastrians as the Koran gives to Christians and Jews, however, this modification does not come from the Koran itself but added some time later.)

The following quotes from the Koran all confirm this fact. (NOTE 1: All quotations from the Koran are identified in terms of page number, chapter, and verse as denoted in The Koran, translated by N.J. Dawood, Penguin Putnam Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA. 1999.)

"Islam - Jews and Christians were assigned a special status as communities possessing scriptures and called the "people of the Book" (ahl al-kitab) and, therefore, were allowed religious autonomy. They were, however, required to pay a per capita tax called jizyah, as opposed to pagans, who were required to either accept Islam or die. The same status of the 'people of the Book' was later extended to Zoroastrians and Hindus, but many 'people of the Book' joined Islam in order to escape the disability of the jizyah." - Britannica.com

We have revealed the Torah, in which there is guidance and light. By it the prophets who submitted to God judged the Jews, and so did the rabbis and the divines, according to God's Book which had been committed to their keeping and to which they themselves were witnesses. (Koran, p. 84, 5:41, 3rd Para. - 5:44, 1st Para.)

Say: 'People of the Book, you will attain nothing until you observe the Torah and the Gospel and that which has been revealed to you from your Lord.' (Koran, p. 87, 5:65, 3rd Para.)

We gave him Isaac and Jacob and guided both as We had guided Noah before them. Among his descendents were David and Solomon, Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron (thus do we reward the righteous); Zacharias and John, Jesus and Elias (all were upright men); and Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot. All these We exalted above the nations as We exalted some of their fathers, their children, and their brothers. We chose them and guided them to a straight path. Such is God's guidance; He bestows it on those of His servants whom He chooses. Had they served other gods besides Him, their labours would have been vain indeed. On those men We bestowed the Scriptures, wisdom, and prophethood. If these are denied by this generation, We will entrust them to others who will not deny them. Those were the men whom God guided. Follow then their guidance and say: 'I demand of you no recompense for this. It is but an admonition to all mankind.' They have no true notion of God's glory, those that say: 'God has never revealed anything to a mortal.' Say: 'Who, then, revealed the Scriptures which Moses brought down, a light and a guide for mankind? You have transcribed them on scraps of paper, declaring some and suppressing much, though now you have been taught what neither you nor you fathers knew before.' (Koran, p. 100, 6:80, 3rd Para. - 6:91, 1st Para.)

Are they seeking a religion other than God's, when every soul in the heaven's and the earth has submitted to Him willingly or by compulsion? To Him shall they return. Say: 'We believe in God and what is revealed to us; in that which was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael, to Isaac and Jacob and the tribes; and in that which their Lord gave Moses and Jesus and the prophets. We discriminate against none of them. Too Him we have surrendered ourselves.' He that chooses a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him and in the world to come he will surely be among the losers. (Koran, p. 50, 3:83, 1st Para. - 3rd Para.)

They say: 'Accept the Jewish or the Christian faith and you shall be rightly guided.' Say: 'By no means! We believe in the faith of Abraham, the upright one. He was no idolater.' Say: We believe in God and that which has been revealed to us; in what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes; to Moses and Jesus and the other prophets by their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them, and to Him we submit.' (Koran, p. 23, 2:132, 4th Para. - 2:136.)

Be courteous when you argue with the People of the Book, except with those among them who do evil. Say: 'We believe in that which has been revealed to us and which was revealed to you. Our God and your God is one. To Him we submit.' (Koran, p. 282, 29:46.)

Tell of Moses, who said to his people: 'Why do you seek to harm me, my people, when you know that I am sent to you by God?' And when they went astray, God led their very hearts astray. God does not guide the evil-doers. And of Jesus son of Mary, who said to the Israelites: 'I am sent forth to you from God to confirm the Torah already revealed, and to give news of an apostle that will come after me whose name is Ahmad.' (Koran, p. 391, 61:1, 4th Para. - 61:8.)

(The amount of times that the Koran affirms Jewish and Christian scripture are too numerous to recount here. A complete list of quotes from the Koran, which uphold that Jewish and Christian scriptures are God's Word, is included in our section on Islam.)

Though both Islam and Hinduism have sacred scripture, believed to contain God's truth for mankind, Sikhism venerates its own religious texts, which are not endorsed by either of its parent religions.

"Sikhism - The earliest source materials on Nanak are the janam-sakhis ("life stories"), written 50 to 80 years after the death of the Guru. Most Sikh scholars reject them and rely instead on the Guru's compositions incorporated in the Adi Granth and the Vars (heroic ballads) composed by Bha i Gurdas (died 1629). Neither Nanak's hymns nor Gurdas' Vars are specific regarding the events of Nanak's life. Other historical writings date from the 18th and the 19th centuries." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - There is only one canonical work: the Adi Granth ("First Book") compiled by the fifth Guru, Arjun, in 1604. There are at least three recensions (versions) of the Adi Granth that differ from each other in minor detail. The version accepted by Sikhs as authentic is said to have been revised by Gobind Singh in 1704. The Adi Granth contains nearly 6,000 hymns composed by the first five Gurus: Nanak (974),Angad (62), Amar Das (907), Ram Das (679), and Arjun (2,218). Gobind incorporated 115 hymns written by his father, Tegh Bahadur, in it. Besides these compositions, the Adi Granth contains hymns of the Bhakta saints and Muslim Sufis (notably Ravidass, Kabir, and Farid Khan), and of a few of the bards attached to the courts of the Gurus." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - The Dasam Granth ("Tenth Book") is a compilation of writings ascribed to Gobind Singh. Scholars do not agree on the authenticity of the contents of this Granth, and it is not accorded the same sanctity as the Adi Granth. Traditions of the Khalsa are contained in the Rahatnamas (codes of conduct) by contemporaries of Gobind Singh." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - A composition about which little is known, but which has played an important role in Sikh affairs, is a collection of prophecies, Sau Sakhi ("Hundred Stories"), ascribed to Gobind Singh. Various versions are known to have been published prophesying changes of regimes and the advent of a redeemer who will spread Sikhism over the globe." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - The sole repository of spiritual authority is the Adi Granth. In the event of disputes, a conclave is summoned to meet at the Akal Takht ("Throne of the Timeless"), a building erected by the sixth Guru, Hargobind, facing the Harimandir temple in Amritsar. Resolutions passed at the Akal Takht have spiritual sanction. Sikh religion and politics have always been intimately connected, and belief in a Sikh state is an article of faith. "Raj karey Ga Khalsa" ("the Khalsa shall rule") is chanted at the conclusion of every service." - Britannica.com

So, we can see that Islam affirms Judeo-Christian scripture, the Koran itself does not allow for Hinduism. Sikhism incorporates both Hindu and Islamic beliefs and so therefore violates Islamic teaching in the Koran, which is regarded by Muslims as authoritative.

By looking at this example regarding sacred texts we have arrived at a critical issue for any religion that presupposes another religion as its basis. If a religion presupposes another religion as a basis for its own views, it must remain consistent with the views of that other religion. If it does not then it undermines the accuracy of the very beliefs that its own claims are founded upon. Sikhism will be the first religion that we study in which this issue becomes significant. However, self-contradictions also occur within Baha'ism and within Islam itself. (We will cover both of these religions as we proceed with our study.)

Sikhism's self-contradiction through deviation from Islam is not limited to its acceptance of religious texts besides those accepted by Islam. It is a fundamental teaching of Islam is that Mohammed (570-632 A.D.) is the final prophet sent by God to proclaim His final message to mankind.

"Muhammad - 570?-632, the name of the Prophet of Islam, one of the great figures of history, b. Mecca." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Islam - In Islam Muhammad is considered the last of a series of prophets (including Adam, Noah, Jesus, and others), and his message simultaneously consummates and abrogates the 'revelations' attributed to earlier prophets." - Britannica.com

"Islam - At the core of Islam is the Qur'an, believed to be the final revelation by a transcendent Allah [Arab.,=the God] to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam; since the Divine Word was revealed in Arabic, this language is used in Islamic religious practice worldwide." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

"Islam - Islam views the Message of Muhammad as the continuation and the fulfillment of a lineage of Prophecy that includes figures from the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament, notably Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus. Islamic law reserves a communal entity status for the ahl al-kitab, People of the Book, i.e., those with revealed religions, including Jews and Christians. Islam also recognizes a number of extra-biblical prophets, such as Hud, Salih, Shuayb, and others of more obscure origin." - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

Mohammed's message (Islamic teaching) was collected and preserved from the memories and pieces of writings of Mohammed's disciples within a generation (approximately 650 A.D.) after Mohammed initially proclaimed God's message to them. It is called the Koran (or Qur'an).

"Muhammad - About 610, as he reflected on such matters, Muhammad had a vision of a majestic being (later identified with the angel Gabriel) and heard a voice saying to him, 'You are the Messenger of God.' This marked the beginning of his career as messenger (or apostle) of God (rasul Alla H ), or Prophet (nabi ). From this time, at frequent intervals until his death, he received 'revelations' —that is, verbal messages that he believed came directly from God. Sometimes these were kept in memory by Muhammad and his followers, and sometimes they were written down. About 650 they were collected and written in the Qur'an (or Koran, the sacred scriptures of Islam), in the form that has endured. Muslims believe the Qur'an is divine revelation, written in the words of God himself." - Britannica.com

"Qur'an - After the Prophet's death, and especially after the battle of Yamamah (633), in which a great number of those who knew the Qur'an by heart had fallen, fear arose that the knowledge of the Qur'an might disappear. So it was decided to collect the revelations from all available written sources and, as Muslim tradition has it, 'from the hearts [i.e., memories] of people.' A companion of the Prophet, Zayd ibn Thabit, is said to have copied on sheets whatever he could find and to have handed it over to the caliph 'Umar. After 'Umar's death the collection was left in the care of his daughter Hafsah. Other copies of the Qur'an appear to have been written later, and different versions were used in different parts of the Muslim empire. So that there would be no doubt about the correct reading of the Qur'an, the caliph 'Uthman (644-656) is reported to have commissioned Zayd ibn Thabit and some other learned men to revise the Qur'an using the "sheets" of Hafsah, comparing them with whatever material was at hand, and consulting those who knew the Qur'an by heart. It was decided that in case of doubt about the pronunciation, the dialect of Quraysh, the Prophet's tribe, was to be given preference. Thus an authoritative text of the Qur'an (now known as the 'Uthmanic recension) was established." - Britannica.com

The Islamic belief the Koran is the final Word of God to mankind coupled with the preservation of the Koran from the earliest times sufficiently prohibits any future religion from basing itself upon Islamic teaching while at the same time deviating from that teaching (contained in the Koran). Likewise, Islam's belief that Mohammed is the final prophet of God prohibits any subsequent prophet or messenger from God from claiming Islam as its predecessor. Since Sikhism commits both of these violations of Islam, it must be found to be self-contradictory and therefore rejected.

Additional comment can be made on Sikhism's affirmation of Islamic teaching, which would prevent the acceptance of Hindu teaching. As we have seen, Islam originated as a monotheistic religion with a high level of prohibition against the old pagan customs as the following quotes can establish. (NOTE: the second quote below is from the Koran.)

"Islam - Jews and Christians were assigned a special status as communities possessing scriptures and called the "people of the Book" (ahl al-kitab ) and, therefore, were allowed religious autonomy. They were, however, required to pay a per capita tax called jizyah, as opposed to pagans, who were required to either accept Islam or die." - Britannica.com

The unbelievers among the People of the Book and the pagans did not desist from unbelief until the Proof was given them: an apostle from God reciting from purified pages infallible decrees. Nor did those who were vouchsafed the Book disagree among themselves until the Proof was given them. Yet they were enjoined only to serve God and to worship none but Him, to attend to their prayers and to render the alms levy. That, surely, is the infallible faith. The unbeliever among the People of the Book and the pagans shall burn for ever in the fire of Hell. They are the vilest of all creatures. (Koran, p. 430, 98:1, 1st Para. - 3rd Para.)

Earlier in our study we saw that Hinduism is a polytheistic and mystical religion allowing for and originating from the fusion of various ancient pagan belief systems.

Hinduism's syncretistic aspects, which we will discuss later in more detail, may be more conducive to incorporating elements of Islamic belief. However, Islam in no way would permit the acceptance or incorporation of Hinduism.

More time could be spent investigating the additional contradictions that exist between Islam and Sikhism (as well as contradictions between Islam and Hinduism), but since we have sufficiently demonstrated the existence and problematic nature of such contradictions, we will move on to examine Sikhism on its own merits.

As we examine if Sikhism stands on its own merit we must ask, does Sikhism offer any objective evidence on its own that can substantiate its claims? The answer is no.

The quotes below will demonstrate that like other Hindu offshoots and mystical religions, Sikhism relies upon personal, subjective experience of the believer as the means by which one realizes and comes to understand the true nature of God and the universe.

"Sikhism - The guidance of the Guru toward the attainment of moksa —release—is absolutely essential. The Guru or the Satguru—true Guru—is accorded a status only a shade below that of God. His function is to point the way to the realization of the truth, to explain the nature of reality, and to give the disciple the gift of the divine word (nam-dan). Although the line of Gurus ended with Gobind Singh and Sikhs regard the Adi Granth as their 'living' Guru, the practice of attaching oneself to a sant ('saint') and elevating him to a status of a Guru has persisted and is widely practiced." - Britannica.com

"Sikhism - Sikhism is often described as nammarga ('the way of nama') because it emphasizes the constant repetition (jap) of the name of God and the gurbani (the divine hymns of the Gurus). Nama cleanses the soul of sin and conquers the source of evil, haumain ('I am')—the ego. Thus tamed, the ego becomes a weapon with which one overcomes lust, anger, greed, attachment, and pride. Nama stills the wandering mind and induces a super-conscious stillness (divya dr s ti), opens the dasam duar ('10th gate'—the body has only nine natural orifices) through which enters divine light; and thus a person attains the state of absolute bliss." - Britannica.com

Additionally, we can see that the Gurus, who founded and formed Sikhism denied miraculous powers.

"Sikhism - Although the Gurus themselves disclaimed miraculous powers, a vast body of sakhis ('stories') recounting such miracles grew up, and with them gurdwaras (temples) commemorating the sites where they were performed." - Britannica.com

The fact that their followers have disregarded the Gurus' denial of miraculous power and later attributed miracles to them is irrelevant. As the authority on Sikh teaching, we must take the word of the Gurus' on the subject. Therefore, miracles are not offered as objective evidence that can be verified to prove the accuracy of Sikhism.

Despite this we find that some miraculous claims are made by Sikhs. One is the belief that the spirit of the Guru is past to their successor(s).

"Sikhism - It also became an article of belief that the spirit of one Guru passed to his successor 'as one lamp lights another.' This notion gained confirmation through the fact that the Gurus used the same poetic pseudonym, 'Nanak,' in their compositions." - Britannica.com

However, we can see that while this claim may be considered miraculous it is not possible to objectively verify that this actually occurred. Successive Guru's use of the same poetic pseudonym in their writings cannot objectively validate that the new Guru has the spirit of the previous Guru. But even if it could this belief is not offered as proof of the accuracy of Sikh beliefs.

Also, we see that it is claimed that Nanak, the first Guru is said to have disappeared while bathing in a stream and reappeared three days later proclaiming his revelation that there is no Hindu or Mussulman (Muslim).

"Sikhism - At Sultanpur, Nanak had his first vision of God, in which he was ordered to preach to mankind. He disappeared while bathing in a stream. When he reappeared on the third day, he proclaimed: 'There is no Hindu, there is no Mussulman.'" - Britannica.com

However, it is apparent that there is no way to objectively verify that this event ever really occurred or, if it did occur, that it was in any way miraculous. Thus, this supposed event does nothing to substantiate the accuracy of Sikhism.

Based upon this information we conclude that there is no reason to accept the views offered by Sikhism as accurate. We therefore, reject Sikhism for reasons similar to why we have rejected other religions in this section including its predecessor, Hinduism, and we also reject Sikhism for its self-contradicting acceptance of Hinduism, Islam, and its own developed beliefs. And ultimately, Sikhism must also be rejected because both of its parent religions have been rejected. We have already rejected Hinduism. Later in our study we will demonstrate the need to reject Islam.

Having completed our thorough analysis of Sikhism we will now proceed to our study of Babism and Baha'ism.

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